Cardiovascular system failure case study essay

Your customer, Mr. Dark-colored, is a 72-year-old man who also called his TeleNurse Series from home and, based on the symptoms he described, was advised to look directly to the Emergency Department at his local clinic. His acknowledging diagnosis can be exacerbation of heart inability (HF). His Ht is usually: 5’9, Wt. 235 lbs. He declares that his usual fat is about 220. Upon admission, his symptoms are: serious shortness of breath; not able to tolerate laying flat; heavy, aching sense in his torso; respirations difficult @ 32/min.; radial pulse 108 and regular; BP 150/78; color dusky and O2 Sitting is 82% on space air; slight diaphoresis; peripheral edema is definitely 3+ pitting, ankle to knee bilaterally and sacral edema is additionally present.

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Zwischenstaatlich BS present with rough crackles in both reduce lobes. He appears scared and anxious; he claims, “This is a worst it has ever been ” do not leave me personally alone. 

Past Medical/Social History: Coronary heart (CAD), hypertonie, cor pulmonale, emphysema-moderate stage. He smoked cigarettes 2 provides per day to get 35 years, and quit five years ago.

Hospitalized 3 times previously pertaining to HF; the most recent hospitalization was 6 months in the past. He is a retired insurance salesperson; married and lives with his wife in a condominium. Sedentary life-style; plays the game of golf occasionally. This individual skipped his diuretics over the weekend because he was golfing.

1 ) Which level of the NYHA classification program and the ACC/AHA staging program would Mr. B’s symptoms best fit inside? Why?

I think his NYHA classification would be Category II. He has Coronary heart and common activity causes fatigue intended for him Mister. B’s ACC/AHA stage can be Stage Deb. He have been hospitalized three times previously to get HF.

installment payments on your Discuss the differences between right and left heart failure, consider the pathophysiology, physiological progression, and signs and symptoms.

Left Sided:

-The most common

-Results from kept ventricular disorder. This inhibits normal forward blood flow creating blood to compliment into the remaining atrium and pulmonary blood vessels. Increased pulmonary pressure causes fluid leakage from pulmonary capillary understructure into the interstitial and then the alveoli -Manifests as pulmonary congestion and edema

Proper Sided:

-occurs the moment right ventricle fails to agreement effectively. -Causes a back-up of blood vessels into the correct atrium and venous blood circulation. -Venous congestion in the systemic circulation ends in jugular venous distention, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, vascular congestion from the GI system, and peripheral edema

-May also result from an acute condition such as proper ventricular infarction or pulmonary embolism -Core Pulmonale may also cause correct sided HF

-Its principal cause is Left on the sides HF. Still left sided HF results in pulmonary congestion and increased pressure in the arteries of the lung area. Eventually serious pulmonary hypertonie results in correct sided hypertrophy and HF

3. Mr. Black’s requests include: a bedside breasts x-ray, ECG, echocardiogram, plus the following labs: Troponin I actually, CK-MB, CBC with differential, BNP, Digoxin level, Electrolytes, Mg++, ABG’s, BUN and creatinine. What is the rationale for performing each of these diagnostics testing? How will the findings/information obtained from the checks be useful in managing Mister. Black’s treatment?

Bedside torso x-ray:


Troponin I: present in Los



BNP: High in patients with HF







Mr. Black is stable and utilized in the Heart failure Telemetry product with the next orders:

Oxygen at 2-4 liters per nasal cannula to keep O2 Sat >90%

Total bed rest with HOB elevated 60-90 degrees, lower limbs dependent

Saline Fasten IVFurosemide (Lasix) 80 magnesium I. Sixth is v. push Stat

I&OFurosemide (Lasix) 85 mg We. V. drive every almost 8 hr.

Daily pounds Albuterol Inhaler 2 puffs twice daily

Heart beat oximetry ” continuousK-Dur 10 mg. l. o. daily

Foley catheterASA 81 mg s. o. daily

TelemetryMetoprolol 100 mg p. u. twice daily

Diet: 2 General motors Na Lisinopril 10 mg p. um. daily

Fluid limit of multitude of mL/dayHCTZ 50 mg s. o. daily

Code status: Full codeDigoxin zero. 25 mg p. u. daily; Carry for HOURS < 60 bpm

Lovenox 60mg SQ every doze hrsDucosate salt 100 magnesium p. to. daily

5. Discuss the rationale for each in the orders over

Sufferers with HF typically have oxygenation problems

Furosemide can be described as loop diuretic

Daily Weight- bloating

Pulse ox- monitor O2

Foley Catheter: monitor output and on foundation rest

K Dur:


Metoprolol: beta blocker that goodies high BP

Lisinopril: ACE inhibitor for HTN

Lovenox: Prevents and treats clots

Fluid Restriction: Excessive fluid traces the cardiovascular system

Digoxin: Treats rhythmic problems

Ducosate: Feces Softener

your five. Identify a few priority medical diagnoses to incorporate in the medical care policy for Mr. Dark.

Excess liquid volume

Decreased heart failure output

Impaired gas exchange

6th. What changes/assessment findings would alert the nurse that Mr. Black’s condition is usually worsening?

Tiredness and dyspnea continue to get worse, weight continues to increase, edema and heart problems worsens, pleural effusion and dysrhythmias continue to develop, hepatomegaly, and reniforme failure starts to occur

Mister. Black responds well for the treatment plan fantastic acute symptoms resolve inside 3 times. His pounds returns to 220 pounds. and he is able to perform his ADL’s with minimal SOB and capable of sleeping comfortably with 2 cushions. Discharge plans are completed.

7. Which usually state from the NYHA Category system plus the ACC/AHA setting up system

Would Mr. Black’s symptoms now match?

NYHA- Course II


8. Select 2 relieve topics (your choice) to focus on. Discuss what should be contained in the discharge teaching plan for Mr. B. (and his wife) for each theme.

Activity and rest: physical exercise training may improve symptoms of HF, however Mr. B needs to recognize that he will will need lots of relax during after exercise and that he shouldn’t overexert himself. Instruct Mr. B’s wife to monitor his exercise and encourage him to take fractures when needed

Medicine therapy: Instruct Mr. N and his partner the expected action of most his medicine and how to identify drug degree of toxicity. Also train him and his wife the right way to take a pulse rate and what range the pulse rate needs to be in. Teach them the symptoms of hypokalemia and hyperkalemia if diuretics are order. Self BP monitoring may also be appropriate in Mr. B’s situation.

Heart Failure

New york city Heart Relationship Classification

American School of Cardiology/American Heart Connection Guidelines Treatment Recommendations

Level A. People at risky of producing heart failing (HF) nevertheless without structural heart disease or symptoms of HF

-Treat hypertension, lipid disorders, diabetes.

-Encourage patient to halt smoking and to exercise regularly.

-Discourage utilization of alcohol, illicit drugs.

-ACE inhibitor if suggested

Course I. Sufferers with heart failure disease with no limitations of physical activity. Common physical activity won’t cause unnecessary fatigue, palpitations, dyspnea, or anginal discomfort. Stage N. People who have structural heart disease nevertheless no symptoms of HF.

-All stage A therapies

-ACE inhibitor unless contraindicated

-Beta-blocker unless contraindicated

Class 2. Patients with cardiac disease who have small limitations of physical activity. They’re comfortable sleeping. Ordinary work out results in fatigue, palpitations, dyspnea, or anginal pain.

Class III. Patients with cardiac disease with marked constraint of physical activity. They’re cozy at rest. Below ordinary exercise causes exhaustion, palpitations, dyspnea, or anginal pain.

Level C. Individuals who have structural heart disease with current or priorsymptoms of cardiovascular system failure. -All stage A & N therapies

-Sodium-restricted diet



-Avoid or take away antiarrhythmic brokers, most calcium channel blockers, and nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs.

-Consider aldosterone antagonists, angiotensin receptor blockers, hydralazine, and nitrates. Category IV. Individuals with cardiac disease who can’t carry out any physical activity without pain. Symptoms of heart insufficiency or of the anginal syndrome might be present even at rest. Any kind of physical activity boosts discomfort. Stage D. Individuals with refractory cardiovascular failure that requires specialized affluence.

-All therapies for any, B, and C

-Mechanical aid device, such as biventricular pacemaker or remaining ventricular support device

-Continuous inotropic therapy

-Hospice proper care

Caboral, M. & Mitchell J. (2003). New suggestions for cardiovascular failure concentrate on prevention. The Nurse Practitioner, 28, twenty two.

Evaluation of Edema

Four-point scale 1+ to 4+:

1+ ” pitting barely detectable

4+ ” pitting persistent and deep (1 or 2 . 54 cm. )


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Category: Health and fitness,

Topic: Cardiovascular system, Heart disease, Physical activity,

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