Onion development in the thailand
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Onion is a historical cultivated veggie which originated from the central Asia. Contemporary archeologist, botanist and historians are unable to determine exact time and place of its first fostering (because this vegetable is perishable as well as cultivation leaves little to no trace), however a few written information enable us to paint a very interesting picture regarding its beginnings.
There are two universities of thoughts regarding the house of red onion cultivation, and both checked out the period five, 500 years ago in Asia. Some scientists believe that onion was first domesticated in central Asia and others in Central East simply by Babylonian culture in Iran and West Pakistan. These are based on historical remnants of food cultivation that made it the teeth of time, several believe that arranged cultivation began much before, thousands of years just before writing and sophisticated tools were created.
Following your fall of the Roman Disposition, Europe created Dark and Middle ages in which main causes of food pertaining to entire human population were espresso beans, cabbage, and onions. In that time, onion was greatly used while both meals and healing remedy. It was also often even more valuable than money. With all the arrival of Renaissance as well as the new trade routes of the Golden Age of Cruise, onions had been carried to all four areas of the world, enabling European colonist and native people from newly found continents to grow this kind of incredible veggie on many soil types. According for some records, onions were the first veg that was ever planted by the 1st colonists who also landed in North America.
Onion Production in the Philippines
Onion is an important bulb plant in the Korea as it is one of many widely used condiments in the traditional cuisine. The onion being cultivated in the country is showed by 3 types: the shallot or multiplier onion (A. nacimiento cv. grms. ascalonicum), the best yellow-skinned type represented simply by ‘Yellow Granex’, and the medium-sized purple-skinned type represented by simply ‘Red Creole’.
The Central Luzon and Ilocos Region are the top onion producers creating a 49. 82% and 31. 38% with the national development, respectively. In Central Luzon, Nueva Ecija is the leading producer of onions accounting to get 99. almost eight % from the region’s development and 49. 76% from the national creation, while in Ilocos Region, Ilocos Ideal is the primary onion suppliers providing about 50% from the region’s development. MIMAROPA and Cagayan Valley produces about 12% and 6% in the national development respectively.
In the three provinces surveyed (Ilocos Ideal, Pangasinan and Nueva Ecija), 97. 67 of onion farmers had been males in a average age of 48 years. Most of them experienced formal training and have an average of 11 numerous years of experience in onion development. Majority or 92 percent reported that farming was their main occupation. Common farm size was 1 ) 147 hectares and the common area cultivated to red onion was zero. 462 acres. About 32. 33 percent of the farms were tenanted, 31. 67 percent were fully held by employees, 12. 67 percent were leased, eleven. 33 percent were held like control other than CLT/CLOA, 6 percent were held below CLT/CLOA, four. 67 percent were subject and 1 . 33 percent were rent free (PSA, 2014).
Onion Cropping System
A single cropping each year was followed by all onion maqui berry farmers in Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija and Mindoro Occidental. In Ilocos Norte, 79. 73 percent reported one popping and the others had two croppings 12 months. On the other hand, the practice of two croppings was common among 77. 46 percent of the red onion farmers in Ilocos En se promenant sur and the remaining 22. 54% had 1 cropping (PSA-BAS, 2013).
According to Philippine Statistics Authority Bureau of Farming Statistics (PSA” BAS) carried out Costs and Returns Study (CRS) of Onion Production in August 2013 that the seeding of red onion usually occurred during the months of Oct to January while harvesting was conducted mostly from March to April. Simply by province, Oct was the growing month of 59. 12-15 percent from the onion maqui berry farmers in Ilocos Sur and 40. 54 percent in Ilocos Norte. There were 40. 54% in Pangasinan and 56. 34 percent in Nueva Ecija who have planted onion during Dec. In Mindoro Occidental, planting was required for January as reported by 61. 33 percent of the onion farmers. Seeding of different crops after onion was a common practice of red onion farmers. Across the provinces covered in the study, about 84. 11 percent planted palay and 19. 73 percent cultivated hammer toe. There were couple of who reported planting of vegetables, condiments, legumes and nuts, tobacco and watermelon. Cultivation of palay following onion was reported by each of the sample onion farmers in Ilocos Sur and Mindoro Occidental. This kind of practice was reported by 91. 89 percent in Ilocos Norte and 73. 24 percent in Nueva Ecija. Those who rooted corn were 37. 84 percent in Pangasinan, twenty-two. 54 percent each in Ilocos Sur and Nueva Ecija, and of sixteen. 22 percent in Ilocos Norte. Sowing of fresh vegetables was generally adopted by simply 23. 94 percent in Nueva Ecija and doze. 16 percent in Ilocos Norte.
In the production of red onion, the seeding materials utilized were light bulb for multiplier onion and seeds to get red onion. Across the provinces surveyed, the typical quantity of seeds of crimson onion employed was five. 04 kilograms per hectare. Seeding costs per hectare averaged several. 51 kilos in Mindoro Occidental, 5. 32 kilograms in Primicia Ecija and 6. 87 kilograms in Pangasinan. Intended for multiplier red onion, an average of 642. 27 kilos of light per acres was used because planting materials. This went from 618. 30 kilograms in Ilocos Norte to 656. 81 kilos in Ilocos Sur. Regarding the source of sowing materials, greater quantities from the red onion seeds had been reportedly acquired while lights of multiplier onion had been mostly own produced by the farmers (PSA-BAS, 2013).
Across the five (5) provinces covered, fostering of crimson onion was mentioned by 60. 28 percent with the onion maqui berry farmers. Multiplier onion was planted by 39. 73 percent. By province, farmers in Pangasinan, Noticia Ecija and Mindoro Communautaire planted entirely the red onion selection. Growing of multiplier onion was through all the maqui berry farmers in Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur (PSA-BAS, 2013).
Variety Grown by Method of Seeding
Immediate seeding of multiplier onion variety was practiced by simply 37 percent of farmers across the representative provinces. This process was followed by 13. 15 percent of maqui berry farmers growing the red onion variety. On the other hand, transplanting was commonly made by 47. doze percent with the farmers whom planted red onion. Just few at 2 . seventy four percent performed transplanting of multiplier onion.
In Mindoro Occidental, transplanting was your only method used in planting red onion. This was reported by 94. thirty seven percent in Nueva Ecija and 45. 54 percent in Pangasinan. The use of direct seeding for red onion was noted simply by 59. 46 percent in the farmers in Pangasinan.
For the multiplier red onion variety, every farmers in Ilocos En se promenant sur performed the direct seeding method. In Ilocos Aspiracion, there were eighty six. 49 percent who used direct seeding method and 13. 51 percent used the transplanting technique. (PSA-BAS, 2013)
Supply of Seeds and its particular Morphology
The major source of onion seed products was the dealers with 53. 97 percent of the onion farmers confirming. There were 29. 86 percent who attained seeds from other own production. Input dealer was mentioned by on the lookout for. 04 percent and cofarmers by four. 93 percent. Only couple of sourced all their seeds coming from seed farmers and cooperatives. Traders were the primary supply of onion seed of 96. 95 percent in Pangasinan and 84 percent in Mindoro Communautaire. Seeds via own developed were through 64. eighty six percent with the farmers in Ilocos Norte and 85. 92 percent in Ilocos Sur. A lot of 29. 54.99 percent in Nueva Ecija availed seed products from input dealers. Onion seeds is usually black in color, embryo is endospermic, crescent formed. According to Hazera Seed products of Progress there are 250-400 seeds every gram.
Seedbed Establishment and Seed sowing
Seedbed should be found in a well-drained, friable soil with great water having capacity and high organic and natural matter content. If ground pH is lower than 5. 8, lime application is essential at the level of 3 tons/ha applied 30 days before transplanting. Land must be prepared by thorough plowings and harrowing. Level and pulverize the dirt to assist in formation of beds (1 meter wide and 20 m long). Prior to seeds sowing, sanitize the beds by burning rice straw above or simply by pouring hot water to prevent infestation and disease infestation. Transmitted chicken manure or fragment at the level of 12 t/ha combined with 10 bags 14-14-14. Space 10-15 centimeter between series and sow seeds consistently in a row at 5-6 seeds/inch with seeding interesting depth of inch. Around 25 grms of seeds is needed every square colocar. Irrigation ought to be applied properly in the field right after seed sowing. Seeds can germinate around 7-10 times after sowing and are looking forward to transplanting forty five days following sowing.
Farmville farm Size and Area Planted/Harvested to Onion
Within the average, how big onion farms in the provinces covered was 0. 71 hectare. This area ranged from zero. 26 acres in Ilocos Norte to at least one. 48 hectares in Mindoro Occidental.
For this survey, the area planted/harvested of the focus parcel of onion farmville farm averaged zero. 49 hectares. The biggest region planted and harvested to onion was noted in Nueva Ecija at zero. 79 hectare. It was most compact in Ilocos Norte in 0. seventeen hectare.
By selection, area planted/harvested to reddish colored onion proportioned 0. sixty six hectares. The average area developed to red onion was 0. seventy nine hectare in Nueva Ecija, 0. 71 hectare in Mindoro Occidental and zero. 48 hectare in Pangasinan. For multiplier onion range, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur reported an average area of 0. 18 hectare and 0. twenty nine hectare, correspondingly (PSA-BAS, 2013).
Sex, Age group, Educational Attainment and Farming Experience
In the five (5) zone covered inside the survey, most the red onion farmers by 95. ’07 percent had been males. Onion farmers in Ilocos Septentrión were almost all males. This kind of constituted 90. 67 percent in Mindoro Occidental. Typical age of onion farmers was 49 years of age. The earliest group of maqui berry farmers was present in Nueva Ecija with an average age of fifty-one years. Maqui berry farmers in Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur and Pangasinan had an average age of 50 years. The youngest group of farmers was noted in Mindoro Communautaire with an average of 46 years.
By simply age group, onion farmers owned by 41 to 50 years and 51 to 60 years made up the biggest portion at 30. 59 percent each. Just 3. 29 percent had been more than 70 years old. Among the list of provinces selected, Nueva Ecija had the highest proportion of onion maqui berry farmers belonging to age group 51 to 60 years by 36. sixty two percent and the least amount at 1 . 41 percent were more than 70 years old. Those aged 41 to 50 years were noted higher in Mindoro Occidental for 33. thirty-three percent.
There was 23. 78 percent of red onion farmers who also finished senior high school education, twenty-four. 11 percent completed general level and 9. 32 percent were college teachers. In Pangasinan, about fifty-one. 35 percent of onion farmers had been high school graduates. Those who gained college degree had been biggest in Ilocos En se promenant sur at of sixteen. 90 percent. About 29. 58 percent of the onion farmers in Nueva Ecija attained fundamental education.
Farming experience of onion maqui berry farmers averaged sixteen years. This kind of ranged from 10 years in Mindoro Occidental to twenty-two years in Nueva Ecija. Onion farmers with farming experience of lower than 11 years accounted for forty-four. 38 percent and those with more than 30 years made up 10. 68 percent. The greatest proportions of onion farmers with below 11 numerous years of experience had been reported in Ilocos En se promenant sur at 53. 52 percent and Mindoro Occidental for 64 percent. In Informacion Ecija, 40. 99 percent had 21 to 3 decades of farming experience.
Crop farming was the primary occupation of 93. 15 percent from the onion farmers. Meanwhile, a number of the onion farmers at 3. 84 percent worked since officials with the government and special interest organizations, corporate executives, managing proprietors and supervisors. Some 1 . sixty four percent had been plant and machine operators/assemblers. Across provinces surveyed, Ilocos Sur reported the biggest percentage of red onion farmers at 98. fifty nine percent in whose main job was plants farming. Ilocos Norte had the least portion at eighty-five. 14 percent. In Ilocos Norte, regarding 8. 11 percent in the onion farmers were govt officials, managers and supervisors.
Problems Relevant to Production
The prevalence of infestations and disorders was the principal production difficulty encountered by simply 50. 96 percent with the onion maqui berry farmers. Bad weather/calamities and expense of inputs were through 41. sixty four percent and 38. thirty eight percent of onion maqui berry farmers, respectively. There have been 27. 95 percent who had been constrained by the lack of capital.
People who reported trouble on infestations and illnesses were biggest in Mindoro Occidental at 64 percent and in Ilocos Sur at 60. 56 percent. Also, in Mindoro Occidental, there were 69. 33 percent of onion maqui berry farmers who offered problem on high cost of advices. Bad weather state was a key production trouble among 63. 51 percent with the onion farmers in Pangasinan. Lack of capital was stated by 32 to 45 percent in the onion maqui berry farmers in Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan and Mindoro Occidental.
Tips to Further Improve Onion Production
The Filipino Statistics Power Bureau of Agricultural Stats (PSA” BAS) conducted Costs and Returns Survey (CRS) of Onion Production in August 2013 found out that throughout the representative pays, there were eighty six. 58 percent of the red onion farmers whom recommended cost support to encourage the production of onion. Financial support was reported by 49. 59 percent while regulation on the selling price of farm building inputs was mentioned by 47. 45 percent. Several 28. forty-nine percent recommended provision of new/modern farming technologies. About 0. fifty five to 8. 49 percent reported addressing environmental concerns, putting into action land reform program, dotacion of infrastructure facilities, dirt testing evaluation and improvement of water sources services.
Existing Onion Seede
Muhammad Arshadul Hoque and Mum Wohab Trommel Seeder. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute developed machine in Fig. you with many parts just like frame, tire, drum, crack opener, and furrow closer. The test results of the trommel seeder were: seed drum width can be 600 mm, depth of sowing 10-15 mm, diameter of the gaps in the seeder was 3 mm to produce onion seedling easily, six rows with 100 mm spacing by seed rate of 5 kg/ha, a field capacity of 0. 08 ha/hr, seeding time of 2 man-day/ha and a yield of onion is 12, 660 kg/ha.
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