Singapore in travel and leisure essay
The management of tourism in Singapore offers undergone several changes above the decades. The adoption of numerous policies and strategies directed at promoting and championing travel and leisure in Singapore has been controlled by socio-economic improvements on the regional and global fronts. A deeper knowledge of the issues regarding tourism expansion in Singapore necessitates a review of the “background of these difficulties as they connect with particular social, economic and political conditions of Singapore. While an introduction, it aims to assessment tourism policies of Singapore with particular emphasis on the responses for the issues developing during different periods of Singapore’s post-independence history.
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This will be accompanied by a synopsis of the chapters included in this publication, which will serve to provide a overview map in the main arguments in this amount. A third section will talk about the future potential customers and challenges for Singapore in its tourism management work.
Tourism Supervision through the Many years:
An assessment Tourism Guidelines
Travel and leisure management in Singapore has sought to get adaptable towards the changes in the larger socio-economic environment.
Tourism policies and strategies include thus mainly corresponded to global causes influencing developments in travel and leisure and monetary development, as well as responded to local factors including changing cultural conditions in the city-state.
TOURISM ADMINISTRATION AND INSURANCE PLAN
The post-independence period (after 1965) in Singapore did find a tourism increase not unlike that in numerous parts of the world, spurred about by technological improvements in transportation and communications (Teo, 1994). Mainly because it became quicker and more affordable to travel, holiday arrivals elevated. Tourism during this period yielded significant economic results, while the influences of travel and leisure went fairly unrecognised as a result of the relative “youth from the phenomenon. In Singapore, tourism was welcome as a means to create much-needed work in a newly-independent nation with pressing should broaden and develop the fledgling economic climate and reconfigure its urban and professional infrastructure (Chang & Yeoh, 1999). The organization of the Singapore Tourist Campaign Board (STPB) was a “conscious policy work by the govt to recognise the importance of the sector to Singapore’s economic and planning goal (Toh & Low, 1990: 249).
Correspondingly, the nature of holiday promotion was shaped simply by similar “modernist aspirations (Teo, 1994: 131). Throughout the 1970s, strategies to enhance tourism concentrated on producing “garden destinations and modern hotels (Chang & Yeoh, 1999: 10) and the advertising of Singapore as “Instant Asia, an area where the different “Asian cultures may be identified (Chang, 1998; Chang & Yeoh, 1999). Attractions trying to encapsulate the “melting pot of Hard anodized cookware cultures included the Singapore Handicraft Middle, opened in 1976 as a showcase of Asian disciplines and crafts, and the “Instant Asia Ethnical Show, which featured dances incorporating the various “races in Singapore (Chang & Yeoh, 1999). These types of “Instant Asia-scapes, however , had been largely encased in contemporary structures that catered for the comfort and protection of vacationers while that they in turn “consumed the tourism product offered.
The mid-1980s saw shifts in the economic sector in the focus in tourism administration. The changes in tourism guidelines were to some extent engendered by simply effects resulting from previous policies, and partially influenced by simply shifts
in the sociable and economic arenas, in Singapore and globally. The most important impetus for the switch in travel and leisure policies was your world economic recession in 1985. The initial signs of the consequence of the economic depression on Singapore’s tourist characters appeared since 1982, if the lowest charge of holiday arrivals (4. 5%) because the formation with the STPB had been recorded (Hornby & Fyfe, 1990). The next year noticed the visitor arrivals rate plummeting to ‘3. five per cent, the first time an adverse growth was written. In 1984 and 1985, tourist arrivals became great again yet growth was slow.
Community factors got also performed a part to spur a rethinking of tourism insurance plan. An an abundance of hotel rooms was knowledgeable in the 1980s, owing tothe overbuilding of new hotels and expansion of some existing ones together with the widespread optimism with the 1960s and 1970s (Khan et ‘s., 1990; Wong & Gan, 1988). Around the economic entrance, the slowdown in the manufacturing sector plus the decrease in Singapore’s competitiveness in labour-intensive procedures were significant factors compelling the difference in policies. Growing the holiday industry was believed to be a significant strategy to address some of these concerns. Besides creating employment, travel and leisure also a new role to learn in the pursuit of Singapore to become an “international business and service centre (Chang & Yeoh, 1999: 104) as economic diversity and the upgrading of regional skills and services started to be the new emphasis (Chang, 1998).
Besides modifications in our local overall economy, the “‘weaknesses’ of theexisting tourist product at that time were identified as factors behind the slowdown (Khan ainsi que al., 1990: 411). These kinds of “products included natural, historical and cultural attractions which were being sacrificed to the dependence on rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Indeed, one of the consequences of the emphasis on modernist urban and economic progress the 1971s and early 1980s was the lack of focus on the preservation of sites of historical interest (Chang & Yeoh, 1999). Historical past conservation, which usually had been largely neglected in view of the more “pressing matters of infrastructure advancement, emerged in the mid-1980s as being a strategy to counter the sterility of the industrial and monetarily efficient cityscape (Chang & Yeoh, 1999).
The conservation of widely and historically significant sites was seen as a panacea to ease one of the major challenges associated with the elderly tourism approaches. The Travel Task Pressure Report of 1984 directed to the have to look into the loss of Singapore’s “Oriental mystique and charm which usually had been made by the quick erasure of “old buildings, traditional actions and bustling road activities from the city landscape (Ministry of Operate and Sector, 1984: 6). Indeed, while Chang (1998: 82) mentioned, the “Instant Asia motif which had successfully were made to the “cash-poor/timestrapped Western traveler no longer become a huge hit to the most “newdesire intended for conservation was also a response to other stimuli. One was the concern of the government of the raising “Westernisation of Singapore’s world brought on throughout industrialisation (Chang & Yeoh, 1999). The profusion of certain “Western values that were perceived being antithetical for the “Asian principles of Singapore society was seen to become a threat that might be countered by the emphasis on the preservation of “Asian values, identity and heritage.
Tourists, which will had altered in account and tastes, being none cash-poor nor mainly in the West. A number of new policies were codified in the Tourism Product Development Plan (Ministry of Operate and Market, 1986). The master plan devoted US$223 million for the redevelopment of ethnic “enclaves just like Chinatown, Little India, and Kampong Fashion, as well as that of historically significant sites just like the Singapore Lake, the Raffles Hotel and Bugis Streets (Teo, 1994; Chang & Yeoh, 1999). Unlike past plans, these policies had been explicitly directed at creating “local cultural consciousness (Teo, year 1994: 132) between Singaporeans, and also creating interesting attractions for the enjoyment of tourists. The STPB released a brand new masterplan in 1993 called The Tactical Plan for Progress.
This plan examined the successes since the Tourism Product Development Prepare and noted that, generally speaking, Singapore’s tourism infrastructure has already been well-developed. Rather than a continued concentrate on new sights, it was felt the fact that tourist scenery in Singapore was more in need of “refinement (Chang & Yeoh, 1999: 105). In popular belief, however , there was some matter among locals that redevelopment projects like the conserved shophouses in Tanjong Pagar and Kreta Anteriormente (flagship preservation projects which usually form section of the redevelopment of Chinatown being a Historic Region, see Yeoh & Kong, 1994; Yeoh & Lau, 1995), experienced lost most of their original character and authentic components. One concern that was particularly felt was the removal of familiar actions and people that had previously inhabited web sites, resulting in a loss in meaning inside the places (Teo, 1994; Teo & Huang, 1995).
One other concern was your perception that redeveloped sites such as the Civic and Cultural District had been “elitist (Teo, 1994: 132; Teo & Huang, 95: 589) and aimed to start with to please the holiday, and had been somewhat divorced from the day-to-day lives ofthe locals. These concerns mirrored the producing awareness amongst Singaporeans with the significance and value of heritage scenery in the rapidly changing textile as well as the need to ensure that the traditional and cultural resources in the city-state are carefully reconfigured to meet the requirements of the two locals and tourists.
Since the modern world approached, but more modifications in our regional monetary and political climate, as well as changing regional consumer preferences, necessitated greater than a “soft way of tourism management in Singapore. The difficulties posed nowadays were said in STPB’s report on the “national tourism planning exercise conducted to review its travel policies (STPB, 1996: 3). Tourism 21: Vision of any Tourism Capital (STPB, 1996) notedthat as new tourist destinations in countries such as Malaysia and Dalam negri were became available, competition for the traveler dollar was intensifying. This growing competition must be dealt with by Singapore, whose tiny size and lack of all-natural resources place the country in a disadvantage although contending having its “culturally-rich and naturally-blessed others who live nearby (STPB, 1996: 15). As Chang (1998) argues, travel policy is reflecting national insurance plan, and this is particularly so presented the local stresses that underpin policies to produce Singapore like a “Tourism Capital. One such pressure is that of the changing nature of travel.
Increasing importance and an increasing number of regional atmosphere links in Asia, the latter being area of the general technological improvements in global travel and leisure, have improved the profile of themajority of visitors to Singapore, as well as the demands on the vacation spot (Chang, 1998). “Tourism as well as “parameters (Yeoh & Chang, 2001) must be redefined. The perfect solution to Singapore’s continued competitiveness has to be seen in the forging of regional tourism and business forces, and this can be summed in STPB’s “strategy of “Tourism Unlimited (STPB, 1996: 6). This strategy perceives members with the tourism market “break[ing] free from their classic geographical boundaries and “packaging complementary products consisting of Singapore’s attractions with regional tourist destinations. This aims to forge entrave between Singapore and the area, and in accomplishing this establish Singapore as a “tourism hub (ibid., p. 6), a “primal node making and benefitting from travel and leisure flows within just Southeast Asia (Yeoh & Chang, 2001).
A second obstacle being tackled by the STPB relates to the of Singapore being expected. Where Singapore was previously advertised as “Instant Asia, the changing community landscape coming from a relatively “undeveloped nation almost 50 years ago to that of any “thriving metropolis today (Chang, 1998: 82) warrants a brand new image being projected to tourists. Correspondant with the changing landscape is definitely the shift in the way tourists had been beginning to understand the Singapore experience. Singapore’s “clean and green environment and worldclass infrastructure had become more amazing in the eyes of tourists than the “exotic, multi-cultural experience (Chang, 98: 82) being offered by “Instant Asia. The modern tourism tagline””New Asia-Singapore”was hence created to addresses this alter, and to echo Singapore’s new roles as “tourism business centre and “tourism hub (STPB, 1996). According to the STPB (1996: 5), “New Asia-Singapore suggests “a Singapore which is progressive and sophisticated, though a unique expression of the Oriental soul. The renaming of the STPB to that of the Singapore Tourism Board (STB) also reflects the changing encounter of travel in Singapore, one that needs to be “championed ratherthan simply “promoted (STPB, 1996: 7), in line with Singapore’s eyesight of becoming a “Tourism Capital.
While “Tourism Unlimited stimulates local tourist enterprises to go regional, STB’s policy also included bringing in Singapore life-style concepts by abroad. The influx of “Western companies such as Entire world Hollywood, Starbucks and Tony Roma’s has been attributed to STB’s attempts to “enhance the Republic’s picture with tourists (Directions: The Business Magazine) by simply actively seeking to “match-make international franchises with local ventures. Furthermore, ethnic and entertainment events such as the staging of worldrenowned musicals like “Cats and “Les Miserables (1994), and activities by Luciano Pavarotti and Michael Jackson (Chang, 1998) in Singapore aim to “tap the regional tourist marketplace by developing Singapore being a regional arts and ethnic “hub. Without a doubt, Singapore continues to be identified as becoming an ideal establishing for “gateway tourism (Low & Toh, 1997, reported in Alter, 1998: 85).
As a potential “gateway to Southeast Asia, Singapore has several distinctive advantages”sophisticated vehicles and telecoms infrastructure, politics stability, time, a good social placing, and an organized location (Chang, 1998). It is stressed once again that simply by “bring[ing] the world to Singapore (STPB, mil novecentos e noventa e seis: 16), such ventures also intend to “serve the household population’s well-being (STPB, 1996: 17), both economically and terms of widening lifestyle choices for Singaporeans (Chang, 98: 86). Travel and leisure 21 likewise took stock of the tourism-related industries in Singapore like the hotel, selling and events sectors. The report forecasted a 6th. 1% increase in hotel rooms provided, from 95 to 1999. With traveler arrivals directed at a 6. 4% enhance annually, a shortage inside the supply of rooms in hotels was expected (STPB, mil novecentos e noventa e seis: 14).
The battle of the price tag sector, however, was to make a more “vibrant and exciting shopping experience for visitors and people alike. It was to counter declines in shoppingexpenditure in the early nineties. The conferences industry was reported to get growing in a “healthy pace, with Singapore keeping its status while the top tradition city in Asia. The report, nevertheless , tempered this kind of optimism with caution against complacency, because competition via rival urban centers such as Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok threaten Singapore’s desire of becoming the tourism gateway in Asia (see as well Yeoh & Chang, 2001).
It is evident that travel policies through time had been inseparable from your wider alterations in the socio-economic context, the two internal and external. It is not necessarily unexpected after that that travel and leisure policies will still be responsive to this sort of changes and challenges later on. The chapters in this publication attemptto elucidate some of these current trends and opportunities that shape, and are also shaped by simply, past and present plans and strategies.
A Summary Map of the Chapters
The substantive chapters in this publication may be broken into three sections” Tourism Strategies, Tourism Solutions and System, and Travel Products. The increasing part of technology in Singapore’s tourism programs and guidelines, operational issues for travel hubs and gateways, and competition, “complementation and regionalisation are the main focus of the first area of this book.
Singapore, in its function as a travel and leisure hub and gateway, is consistently facing newchallenges, especially in the wake of the Oriental financial crisis. In the opening section, Low investigates the leaner and more competitive environment where the tourism sector must right now operate. Within this framework, she explores the escalating role that technology plays in Singapore’s long term development and examines how tourism is definitely an integral element of this expansion. She proposes that as policies and strategies in Singapore have invariably been proactive and forward-looking, Singapore’s experiences, complications and prospective customers as a travel and leisure hub and gateway may offer an analytical platform for additional countries in the area. Important problems she suggests need to be regarded include if tourism guidelines will lead to head-on competition or more collaborative “complementation, the efforts at economic co-operation both in ASEAN and APEC, and the part of regional and foreign politics as being a threat to Singapore’s stability and sustainability as a tourism hub.
Khoo complements Low’s discussion, guessing sizeable progress in the travel industry in Singapore”as a tourist vacation spot, a traveler business hub and a tourist hub. He investigates the Travel Satellite Bank account (TSA), which was established in 1993, finally providing a consistent and logical standard of measure of the economic contribution of this industry. The TSA yields credible and equivalent data about tourism’s contribution to the country’s GDP additionally to ideal and value-adding information critical to the economic planning, advertising management of tourism. Currently Singapore is a only Asian country to acquire such an account. The STB and the Section of Stats are continuously developing the methodology of TSAs to be able to both make accurate and up-to-date details and aid on-going monitoring of travel and its related activities in Singapore.
Tourism twenty-one, Singapore’s formula for creating Singapore into a travel capital, is definitely introduced simply by Tham. Travel 21 suggests regionalisation to spearhead the introduction of Singapore’s tourism future, with Singapore learning to be a vital regional tourism hub and business centre. Regionalisation would promote regional travel investment, develop local enterprises and boost stronger entrave to the region’s major travel and leisure destinations. Tham suggests that this strategy offers the visitor “destination twinning, where Singapore is the modern cosmopolitan city-destination providing quick access to the abundant and numerous mix of traditions, history and people today belonging to the region, as a result benefitting the complete region.
The gateway function of Singapore is further explored by Sriram, Raguraman and Lew. Singapore has already been a well-established gateway to all or any the major urban centres in Southeast Asia for the long haul passenger. It competes directly with Bangkok and Hong Kong since it is the explicit aim of each one of these three urban centers to become the travel and tourism entrance for all of Southeast Asia at the international transport hub level. Based on their very own analysis, the authors suggest certain actions that must be taken to ensure ongoing gateway position for Singapore.
In the next section, tourism assets and infrastructure in Singapore are reviewed. Two of Singapore’s tourism aims for the modern millennium in order to make Singapore a “must see destination as well as to enhance its active participation in the development of tourism in the region, creating “win-win partnerships. Historically, the region’s trade policies had been restrictive, but for achieve Singapore’s aims, a far more co-operative, generous and economically stable environment is required. Chin examines the implications of your “openskies policy on way development in the area in addition to the post occurences of the Hard anodized cookware financial crisis about airport development. Inevitably, these kinds of events may have tremendous significance on visitor arrivals and movement in the region.
Chong, Ho, Ng and Color present a methodological strategy for making a modelbased on competency for workers in the Singapore tourism industry. The aim of all their model should be to formalise skill standards in order that it can be used for competency recognition, training and development. They also intend their model to be able to identify essential areas of staff training. Together with the growing importance of competency inside the new knowledge-based economy, the authors claim for the requirement to develop a demanding methodology that is certainly both effective and efficient while at the same time strongly related the existing circumstances in the industry.
The Hard anodized cookware financial crisis damaged all areas of tourism in Singapore, such as hotel industry. Boon’s exploration into tactical management of hotels much more economic stress, found that the hotel’s performance was drastically related to it is size, industry positioning and types of management, however, not significantly related to its area. Initiatives and policies in the STB good to the accommodations also helped them manage the economical uncertainties. Boon proposes a lot of strategies that hotel operators could undertake to ensure that that they remain feasible into the subsequent millennium.
Chang examines a number of the issues and challenges the Singapore authorities must encounter in order to realise its vision for the brand new millennium, that may be of Singapore as a “Global City intended for the Arts (GCA). He argues to get the hitting need to enhance arts and cultural “software (talents and human resources) over the present focus on “hardware development (infrastructure); explores the challenges of exporting Singapore-initiated entertainment incidents worldwide; and highlights some of the local peculiarities inherent in the arts industry that might hinder Singapore’s
quest to be a global arts hub. He warns that unless regional rules and regulations regulating entertainment occasions are relaxed in conjunction with changing mindsets of local people, Singapore’s GCA vision will stay at a purely rhetorical level.
Singapore offers a variety of tourist and business destinations to attract foreign visitors. The final section provides a broad protection of Singapore’s tourism goods as well as offering insight into future improvements. As such, Yong describes a framework intended for the estimation of a demand model pertaining to retail sales in Singapore. Using this require equation, this individual found that tourist landings were both statistically and economically significant to selling sales. Based upon figures for 1998 and early 99, he forecasted that each further tourist improved retail revenue by an amount ranging from $1, 748 to $2, 934. In addition , his investigation shows that a very simple increase in travel and leisure promotion expenditure, $13. 70 per holiday, could result in significant improvement in the retail industry’s performance. He recommends that the retail market should maximize its participation in starting and financing tourism marketing activities.
Although leisure and tourism are central to social life, they are seldom acknowledged as principal determinants of space and culture. Teo and Yeoh however argue that since tourism is a spatially differentiating activity, it has superb potential to determine geographies. Through this chapter, the authors explore the interconnectedness of Singapore with the rest of the world and description the impact with the economic crisis in tourism in Singapore. Using theme leisure areas astheir function of research, they show how volatile and receptive this market must be to changes over a worldwide size. Given the negative effects associated with a decline in tourist landings, they treat the issues faced by motif parks and suggest both short- and long-term strategies to reposition the industry. In the investigation, Shelter finds that despite the economic crisis, Singapore’s luxury cruise industry continues to be experiencing healthy and balanced growth: Singapore registered a 33% progress in luxury cruise industry passenger throughput more than a decade ago over 99. Lee further more provides an introduction to the aspect of the regional and local cruise industry in the general economical and travel angles. He also examines the impact that world marketplace forces include on the market.
Beach travel and leisure, a subcomponent of seaside tourism, indicates an interaction of two systems: travel and seashores. In the case of Singapore, Wong examines the extent and nature of beach front management, examines the concept of Singapore as a exotic island holiday resort and examines the prospective customers of beach front tourism in Singapore. This individual argues that managing beach tourism later on will require a wider comprehension of nonstructural factors and also in the impact of the projected rising sea level. He gives a feel that the beach front is not only for tourists but in addition for protecting the land on the coast and is also an important source of coastal inhabitants.
The term “authenticity is not really a new feature of tourism; the industry having turn into an expert in marketing pictures of authenticity to travelers. With the elevating popularity of social heritage and tourism, Chia explores and attempts to provide an understanding with the links between issues of authenticity and culture, especially, the visitor industry’s claim of “authentic culture or perhaps “authentic heritage, by checking out how spots of worship, gazetted because national monuments, are used as sites pertaining to the “staging of authenticity. She illustrates the ever-present play of power relations in tourism and shows that they are not really between visitors and locals, but important, between people and the state.
In the ending chapter, Seah asserts that geographical analysis and scholarship grant on meeting tourism had been lacking although it is recognized as a extremely specialised and major component of urban travel and leisure in modern-day societies. In the first component to his conventional paper, he looks at the nature of tradition tourism and its particular development in Singapore. In the second section he uses the results of fieldwork with the delegates’ family members to create a tradition tourism version. He states that loved ones are a distinct segment of convention travel and that the capability to attract loved ones leads to a “win-win scenario for the host country.
Upcoming Prospects and Challenges
The above portions, together with the chapters in this book, provide visitors a sense of where Singapore moved and wherever it is heading in terms of travel policy and management. Through the reports and analyses, it truly is evident, and obviously should come as no surprise to observers and researchers, that Singapore has a proactive state which seeks to maintain a delightful economy through forward planning, timely concours, entrepreneurial activities, and infrastructural development.
Indeed, the visible hand with the state are located in practically every sectors of the economy, including tourism. By and large, the evidence indicates that the participation of the state has been great, and will very likely continue to be therefore. The positive results for our economy may be attributed to a key feature of travel and leisure policy and strategy in Singapore”flexibility. Through the years, tourism strategy has evolved through the simpler “Singapore”Instant Asia towards the much more sophisticated “New Asia-Singapore and “Singapore as travel and leisure hub, capital, and gateway approach. These “new tourismstrategy reflects, in the lingo of contingency theories in organisational studies, an open system approach which acknowledges that “there is no one way to organise and that “the simplest way to set up depends on the nature of the environment to which the organisation relates (Scott, 98: 95).
Naturally, the environment dealing with Singapore and its tourist industry has changed immensely since the sixties. Whether the transformation is classed globalisation or attributed to the advent of the brand new millennium, the fact remains that tourism planners must develop effective policies which can mobilise internal and external methods, as well as defeat constraints and impediments. This calls for producing constant changes, even for the extent of allowing for paradigm shifts. Given the thrashing and fast-changing environment facing Singapore travel and leisure, it is difficult to predict whether or not the “new tourism will increase tourist figures and reel in more visitor dollars towards the extent hoped for. What is more particular is that Singapore’s tourism plan will still exhibit a top degree of flexibility, a attribute which augurs well for its future within an ever changing and increasingly interconnected, competitive globe.
Understood as both a microcosm and a subset from the government’s macroeconomic policy, we now have good reasons to trust that Singapore’s tourism plan can help Singapore survive the growing organization competition in the region and throughout the world. However , the issue is not merely regarding economicsand income. Apart from as an economy or maybe a mega-corporation, whether or not it has often-time been called Singapore Incorporation., Singapore is usually a relativelynew nation using a multi-ethnic, multi-religious citizenry. While the latter feature has been used as a travel selling point in past times, there is concern that local identities, demands, heritage, and authenticity would be compromised”even sacrificed”at the ceremony of global capitalism, including the development and marketing of sightseeing attractions and the commodification of structures, sites and activities.
Nevertheless, the respond to this local/tourist tension would not have to be with the “all-or-nothing type, just as the response to globalisation does not need to be extreme nationalism or monetary protectionism. The challenge is to you should find an optimum position which balances the needs of locals and travelers (Tyler, 1998: 2). Chia’s case study (in this volume) on faith based attractions in Singapore, for example , reflects succinctly the challenge of using faith based sites and festivals because tourism products, without offending the spiritual sensitivities of local participants. More generally, Yeoh and Chang (2001: 1035″1036) mention the need to “reconcile local and regional tensions with Singapore’s international ambitions, including global tourism plans, and claim that meeting this kind of challenge requires, among other things, doing meaningful listenings with the “voices of dissent emanating through the grassroots. Undoubtedly that forging a collaboration between the several stakeholders may contribute to making the tourism sector in Singapore more radiant and resistant.
All in all, the process of travel policy and management is not merely regarding developing travel and leisure resources, facilities and items, but , more importantly, about confronting globalisation in ways which benefits the local economy, empowers the citizenry, and helps to move a national identity. This procedure involves contestations, but allowing for dissents and encouraging participation can simply benefit Singapore, the economy (including tourism link, capital and gateway), polity and country.
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Chang, T. C. & Yeoh, B. T. A. (1999) “New Asia-Singapore: communicating neighborhood
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