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The case study of enron essay

Introduction

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Reputational risk is problems for the value of a company’s manufacturer caused by unfavorable public judgment. It can happen for a number of factors such as company directors maximize do it yourself interest that have a incapacitating effect on aktionär wealth and value with the company (Wise Geek). Large companies always have a strong concern on building and retaining its very good name. Billions of dollars have used on “image advertising. When a company got an optimistic reputation, it may well come up with ways to protect that.

Reputational risk management plays an important function in a business good business governance modal. Not handling reputation correctly can have a significant impact on a long and damaging consequences for the business (Billington, 2004). For instance , a business unethical conduct in its business activities provides about poor market notion which bring about a decrease in customer self-confident and trust, quantities about sales turn into fewer which in turn has a negative impact on its talk about price.

Arthur Andersen was one of the world’s five largest accountancy and auditing firms as 1990s. During that time, Enron was your most important client of Andersen.

The company acted while auditors and financial advisors to Enron for many years. “The collapsed of Enron as a result of a number of questionable and against the law financial practices, and Arthur Andersen was subsequently convicted of blockage of justice for its portion in the scandal( Giles, 2012). The standing damage to get both businesses were quick and catastrophic, and its clients fled in droves. Challenges on organization strategies could also caused reputational risk since Enron’s motivation to take risks on improvements such as Enron Online and employing top professional staff will be results to become failure.

Risk Theme Debate

Enron’s innovation process Enron increased its profits by simply introducing many innovations(Fox, 2003). In 1989 it introduced Gas Bank, which allowed gas manufacturers gas producers and inexpensive buyers to purchase firm gas supplies and hedge the retail price risk at the same time. Enron employed derivatives to lower risks connected with future gas price. The corporation took good thing about the derivatives revolution that had currently begun inside the finance place, but it was new to the natural gas sector.

This provided the business owners opportunity to deliver risks in the company and the ones risks had been easily overlooked by the risk committee as there are lack of theory or treatment. However , the majority of Enron’s trading involved personalized contracts employed outside of exchanges, which resulted in there was not any exchange regulating these bargains (Fox, 2003). This primary success caused Enron to extrapolate their business model to other markets. Since the large debt levels would reduce the investment grade and trigger banking institutions to recall money, Enron need to find a way to hide your debt, therefore the firm became the pioneer in using the Unique Purpose Agencies. An SPE is simply a trust created by a company to carry some of the business assets.

As it contains some assets but non-e with the company’s existing debt, it is a risky borrower and can borrow money at lower rates(Curral and Epstein, 2003). So , quite simply, Enron was making a sale to itself, showing a profit on its book, and hiding the corresponding loss in the SPE which could brought in monetary risk and operational risk into the organization. Another development at the same time was the initiation of EnronCredit. com, which traded credit risk to help companies manage the chance incurred in trading deal (Fox, 2003). Therefore , we can see that Enron’s willingness to consider risks on innovation makes its standing as an innovator. Thus giving the company an competitive benefits but as well put reputational risk within the desk. Appropriate risk management process should have within order to stop disaster going on.

Enron’s corporate culture

A corporate traditions may be freely defined as “the way we all do things around here.  corporate traditions is a merchandise of formal rules and unspoken dicta, fables and heroes, and the behaviors which have been rewarded and punished (Bader, S). Throughout the rise and fall of Enron, the organization has been known as having a lifestyle of cockiness. This particular tradition made people believe that the corporation could control a wide variety of risks without acquiring any hazard. Enron’s corporate and business culture has failed to promote the values of honesty and integrity.

These kinds of values were undermined through the company’s emphasis on decentralization, the employee efficiency appraisals, as well as its compensation program(Weiss, 2009). Enron has divided its business activities and business product into various parts and there are almost all separate from your others. Therefore very few persons in the organization had a standard perspective with the company’s businesses. This is where operational risk occurred among the diverse department and therefore caused losing reputation of outsider of poor performance of the units in the “cobweb. Jeff Skilling was obviously a major participant in establishing the objectives high by Enron and made it obvious that his type of everyone was extreme risk takers and thrill seekers(Graarrg. 2010). This individual implemented a very rigorous and threatening efficiency evaluation procedure for all Enron employees.

Called “rank and yank,  the annual process employed peer assessments, and each in the company’s divisions was randomly forced to fireplace the lowest rating one-fifth of its personnel. Employees usually ranked their very own peers reduced order to enhance their own positions in the organization (Fowler, 2002). As a result, only the “best as well as the “brightest survived this test. This is the time when the employee of Enron starts lost trust with each other from the bottom to the top rated. Here we’re able to concluded that corporations with a healthier corporate culture gain an optimistic reputation amongst potential staff, which may catch the attention of talented and skilled staff to the organization. A renowned business reputation allows the company to fee a higher price to get products and services and increases the value of the business in the monetary market.

Enron’s reputational risk

Popularity is a energetic asset, changing as enterprise present fresh services and products in new marketplaces, being placed to changing criteria and facing unforeseen challenges. This kind of suggests that there is a role pertaining to risk managers both in maintaining and safeguarding the organisation’s standing with its stakeholders, and repairing its good identity when situations conspire to damage it(Economist Intelligence Unit, 2005). Even as we now understand, Enron’s primary business involved buying and selling electrical energy and other forms of energy.

For the electric power contracts to acquire electricity, the managers in the utility want to be completely satisfied the fact that seller will deliver the bad particals exactly as the contract claims at the decided price. This means that the businesses with whom Enron was trading electrical power needed to be sure Enron will deliver about its caught promises. Quite simply, they had to trust Enron. But in March 2001, once Enron announced that its earlier financial transactions overstated the firm’s income, it eroded such trust. As everybody recognizes, the announcement triggered investors to lessen their valuations in the firm(Karpoff, 2002). However , Enron undermined the reputation.

Because of this , Enron fallen down and so fast as the core businesses relied within the firm’s reputation. When that reputation was wounded, energy traders got their organization elsewhere, plus the company will certainly face a big loss in profit. Reputational also problems Enron’s exterior auditor, Arthur Andersen. What Arthur Andersen provides because an auditor is qualification that the client’s financial statements accurately reveal the client’s business health. Therefore Andersen provide to the public good trustworthiness of Enron. The business pay it audit fees to sign to the expenditure community the fact that firms’ books are trustworthy(Nelson, 2008). Although we all know that Anderson change the financial report to produce a fake image of Enron. In the same way Enron collapsed by wrecking its status and destroying its energy trading organization, Andersen’s tale is also come to an end.

Recommendations

There should be a normal corporate lifestyle in a organization. We can see Enron’s corporate lifestyle played a crucial role of its fall. The senior executives presumed Enron had to be the best in everything that did plus the shareholders of the board, who had been not involved in this scandal, were above optimistic about Enron’s working conditions. Once there been around failures and losses in their company overall performance, what they did was covering up their failures in order to protect their kudos instead of trying to do something to generate it accurate. Also, the management should certainly ensure the business develop a reputational risk management method with its risk management program.

Papers some useful cases of corporate standing failures like a source of managing. The administrators should oversee the design and implementation of the strategic risk management program wherever all business events with potential consequences on the firm’s reputation capital are recognized and tested. What’s more, it is recommended the company to supply ethics training to enable almost all stakeholders to realize, appreciate, and resolve ethical dilemmas. Inspire conversations regarding ethical and reputational risk and minimization strategies by multiple opportunities, with all stakeholders.

Conclusion

The Enron case was your biggest within a series of scandals that broken the reputations of companies in Us. There are many causes lead to the collapse of the company. How big the company, the complexity of business actions and also the greed and collusion of important participants. This kind of essay is focused on the reputational risk the company meet, discuss what happened during its advancement process of which usually caused destruction in the company’s reputation. As well as the corporate tradition within the company that plays an important role in its fallen. From the above examination, we can find that managing reputation risk have both external and internal challenges. Interior factor requires the administration to establish an appropriate vision, beliefs and ideal plan to guideline action. Exterior factor needs concern about environment and also other stakeholders thoughts and opinions to ensure it is on the right track to obtain trust and confidence from the stakeholders. Lessons need to be learned or a single Enron is not the conclusion.

Reference List

1 . Bader, S. (n. d). Enron’s Real Lesson: Strengthen Table Culture. Gathered September almost eight, 2013, by https://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCoQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greatboards.org%2Fpubs%2FBoard_culture.PDF&ei=eqQ1Utv2MsXGkwWt2YF4&usg=AFQjCNEWFWha48S5fANFfZKNryEm1vHTfA&bvm=bv.52164340,d.dGI

installment payments on your Billington, T. (2004, March 11). The right way to manage status risk. Retrieved September several, 2013, via http://www.zdnet.com/how-to-manage-reputation-risk-1139162537/

several. Curral, C & Epstein, M. (2003). The fragility of organizational Trust: Lessons From the Surge and Fall season of Enron. Organizational Aspect 32: installment payments on your pp 193-206

4. Economist Intelligence Unit. (2005). Reputation: risk of risks. Retrieved Sept 5, 2013, from http://www.acegroup.com/eu-en/assets/risk-reputation-report.pdf

5. Fowler, T. (2002). The pleasure and the fall of Enron. Houston Chronicle, retrieved Sept 11, 2013, from http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/special/enron/1624822

6. Sibel, L. (2003). Enron the Rise and Fall. Hoboken, New Jersey: Steve Wiley &Sons 7. Giles, S. (2012). Managing Fraud Risk: An acceptable Guide for Directors and Managers. Uk: John Wiley & Kids.

8. Graarrg. (2010). Enron’s Story of Corporate Criminal offenses: Organizational Lifestyle, Beliefs, Reasons, and Bonuses. Retrieved Sept 8, 2013, from http://voices.yahoo.com/enrons-story-corporate-crime-organizational-culture-6578186.html?cat=3

9. Karpoff, J. (2002). Why standing counts much more than regulation. Retrieved September a couple of, from http://faculty.washington.edu/karpoff/FIN%20509/Enron_EBF.pdf

10. Nelson KK, Cost RA, & Rountree BR. (2008). The marketplace reaction to Arthur Andersen’s function in the Enron scandal: Lack of reputation or perhaps confounding effects?. Journal of Accounting & Economics, 46(2-3): 279-293. 14. Weiss, T. (2009). Business Ethics: A Stakeholder and Issues Supervision Approach. Canada: South-Western Cengage Learning

12. Wise Geek. (n. d. ). Precisely what is reputation risk. Retrieved Sept 5, 2013, from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-reputation-risk.htm

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