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Ayn Rand, Fountainhead, The Fountainhead

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Howard Roarks character inside the Fountainhead is unwavering and beyond the consequences of time, persons, and mass opinion. Most of Roarks performance and sincerity is used contrast, a contrast towards the ever-changing values of those around him. These types of differences, and Roarks steadfast character, could be tracked through the two tests of Howard Roark. The first trial, the go well with against Roark from Stoddard, involves a similar cast of characters while the second, the moment Roark can be accused of dynamiting Cortlandt. The differences during these characters testimony, the different atmospheres of the court room, as well as the different character of the trial all demonstrate Rands main theme of the integrity and necessity of the egoist.

The differences show not only the changing of mass view influenced by powerful, but also all of the changes that Roarks philosophy results in to those whom he interacts with. The initially trial in many ways mimics within a smaller percentage the philosophy brought out in the second. The result is the elevated success of Roarks testimony in the second trial, certainly not towards the judgement, but to the reader.

In back of the existence of Stoddard v. Roark is the affect of Ellsworth Toohey. Toohey, the anti-Roark, is the champion of altruism and collectivism. He is opposed to individualism to be able to rule the masses: Clear mans souland the space is yours to fill (636). Tooheys influence distributes far and wide. This individual has created just about every respectable panel in every reputable creative field including architecture, literature, crisis, and the press and through his impact over the people within these kinds of boards, along with his architecture steering column in the famous newspaper the Banner, they can control public opinion, tell the people what to believe, to like, and in importance destroy their souls. The only thing standing in the way of Tooheys aim is what this individual calls the thinking gentleman. As he points out his philosophy to Keating, he promotes the eradication of cause and rationality in person: You tell him that there is something above sense. That here he must not make an effort to think, he or she must feel. Hang reason therefore you play that deuces crazy. Anything goes in any manner you wish if you need it. Youve got him (637). Toohey attempts to destroy the liberty of head and the self-respect of every guy. As for the individualism of Howard Roark, he says, Are you able to rule a thinking man? We dont want any kind of thinking males (637). Therefore, Toohey begins to destroy Roark, to turn the hatred from the masses this individual controls against him. He uses his influence more than Hopton Stoddard to push him into providing the commission payment for the Stoddard Temple to Howard Roark. Stoddard then sails on a voyage while the Brow is being created. When it is accomplished, Toohey criticizes the temple in his steering column as the cell of your megalomaniac that exudes cockiness, audacity, defiance, self-exaltation (339). The most important aspect of Tooheys plan is the selection of the Stoddard Temple. Toohey (with the masses following) and Roarks philosophy fluctuate in the area of guys place in the world. Toohey motivates humility and insignificance, Roark exemplifies the ego and greatness of man. For this reason difference, Toohey knows Roark will build a Temple of self-exaltation, the one that he can quickly discredit while using public sentiment of devotion and the religious conviction of self-sacrifice. He just as conveniently convinces Stoddard to drag into court Roark. Toohey and his affect on the people is the driving force behind Howard Roarks first trial.

The audience only at that trial is obviously under Tooheys control, the two directly through his accounts and not directly through his influence more than public view. The crowd consists of most of Tooheys proteges and colleagues, everybody realized almost everybody more. The ambiance radiated an understanding of our group, our males, our show’ (348). Therefore, when Toohey testifies, his speech that proves the Stoddard Serenidad as a monument to a outstanding hatred of humanity elicits a burst open of applause from the viewers (350). The effect of this atmosphere is also noticeable over the evaluate of the trial. Although the attorney objects to Dominiques accounts, the judge lets her continue because he knew that the audience was enjoying this, in the large excitement of scandal, though their sympathies were with Hopton Stoddard (356). The audience seems to be driving a car the consensus towards Stoddards victory.

The two most critical pieces of accounts, besides Toohey, are the ones from Peter Keating and Dominique Francon. Keating is Rands exemplary case of a second-hander, all his life Philip had under no circumstances created executive works of his individual mind, but used history and Roark to create his very best buildings. At the beginning of his testimony, Keating is asked to list his great works of art, among which can be the Cosmo-Slotnick building, a building designed by Roark. A big change comes above Peter when he testifies against Roark, the man who is in charge of his success. His behavior is marked both equally with remorse and a desire for public approval: He kept his eyes within the audiencehe seemed as if he were pleading the group for supportas if he were about trial before them (351). Keating uses this kind of feeling, wonderful discomfort with Roarks integrity, to turn his testimony in a drunken trend against Roark. Keating doesnt understand he is a second-hander, but will understand that it can be Roark who is making him feel limited and soulless. He blathers I never see what is so wrong with trying to please persons and later, speaking about Roarks admiration for buildings and his the case creative field, Whats thus damn sacred about it? Were only humanWhy cant items be simple and easy? Why do we have to be some sort of God-damn heroes? (352). It is only later with Roarks support that Keating realizes what he is becoming, what he in fact is definitely. But at the first trial, Keating eyelashes out against his feeling of inability, made obvious by Howard Roark.

The injured parties case takings with a thread of executive greats, males who have constructed their professions copying the great buildings of the past without a one new idea, and ends finally with the testimony of Dominique Francon. Dominique is perhaps the most complex character inside the Fountainhead. It really is clear the lady recognizes Roarks genius yet does not believe that such genius can are present in this world of mass thoughts and opinions and widespread collectivism. The girl loves Roark, yet your woman tries to damage him. Her testimony on the first trial illustrates her conflicting feelings, feelings that could change when Roarks second trial commences. To begin, Dominique seems like shes testifying against Roark. She says that Stoddard should have sued not for change costs, nevertheless for demolition costs’ (355). States she will abide by all the preceding testimony against Roark, and she confirms that the Stoddard Temple is known as a threat to humanity. Yet she brings that the witnesses have not advised the whole real truth. The Stoddard Temple is actually a threat to a lot of things. If this were allowed to exist, no one would challenge to look at him self in the mirrordont ask them to obtain self-respect. They may hate your soul (356). Dominique knows why the masses hate Roark. Roark has never was a victim of the thoughts and opinions of others, features always upheld his convictions and concepts. She blames Roark designed for building the Stoddard Serenidad incorrectly, but for building something most of the universe can never understand or love. She demands, What is the usage of building for a world it does not exist? and later adds, professing to demonstrate the attorneys case, The Stoddard Forehead must be ruined. Not to preserve men from it, but to save it from males (356-357). After Dominiques account, the individual rests.

Throughout the injured persons case, Roark refuses to issue witnesses. Following each experience, he says steadly, without fail, Simply no questions. Roark does not offer a defense because he feels he doesnt have to. His frame of mind, like the Stoddard Temple that Dominique identifies, triggers hate from the masses. Before the trial begins, the audience stares by Roark, exclusively at the protection table, and notices angrily that this individual did not look crushed and he did not look rebellious. He viewed impersonal and calm. The crowd wasn’t able to accept this kind of reaction to a public scandal, and could certainly not accept that Roark was unaffected by the publics judgment of him. As a result, each of the audience disliked him following your first few mins (349). The same theme happens on the see stand. Every single witness the plaintiff gives offers an judgment of Roarks temple, and Roark doesnt care about the opinion. Roarks independence of opinion is definitely evident through out the novel. For example , when ever Toohey is usually finally only with Roark and demands what Roark thinks of him, Roark simple says, But My spouse and i dont think of you. Roark is completely 3rd party, and the Tooheys of the world does not work for him. Accordingly, when asked to cross-examine witnesses who also only have stated opinions about the man, Roark refuses. He as well calls simply no witnesses of his own. He simply lays pictures of the Stoddard Temple in front of the judge to find out. This reaction is very unlike that of his second trial. But it is not since Roark has evolved over the course of the novel, nevertheless because of the characteristics of the second trial on its own. Because the second trial is definitely fundamentally different from the 1st, Roark has the capacity to testify. For the time being, however , public opinion is victorious, and Hopton Stoddard wins his suit against Howard Roark.

Many years afterwards, Howard Roark is put on trial again, for destroying a low-rent housing job called Cortlandt. Peter Keating, whose business is now failing, asks Roark to help him design Cortlandt in order to revive his firm. Roark confirms on the state that the complexes are not altered in any way. Cortlandt is Roarks masterpiece, a problem he had been working on for years, and a building he could under no circumstances build due to publics view against him. However , Keating breaks the agreement, and, partially because of Tooheys plan, the complexes are changed by two second-handers that Toohey is trying to glorify. However , the trial will not exist as a result of Toohey, as with that of the Stoddard Brow. The trial exists because of Howard Roarks ideals. Toohey, although this individual did find out Roark designed the enclosure project, did not plan that Roark would venture to the serious of wrecking Cortlandt. Roark himself can be behind his trial since Roark necessary to destroy home. The nature of the second trial of Howard Roark is essentially unlike that of the first. In the first, Roark was asked to rationalize his own work to others, which this individual felt you should not do. In the second, he must justify the destruction of not simply Cortlandt Homes, but what the modified Cortlandt Homes stood for.

The atmosphere of the trial can be changed. Tooheys entourage remains in tow, but many other folks are present on the trial, a persons mass in whose faces stood out, independent, lonely, not any two alike (674). Even though had arrive to see the sensation in the trial, this kind of audience is very different from Tooheys celebrities in the first trial. These people every had known a short while when, in lonely, nude honesty, he previously felt the need of an answer (675). This audience is not under the utter control of Ellsworth Toohey. The case, the audience is referred to as a persons mass and theyre purposes for coming are not pertaining to sympathy on either side of the case. But they all are searching for a solution, an answer that Roark provides for them.

Another big difference in this second trial is a presence from the jury that Roark, as defense, has a hand in choosing. The decision of Roarks fate is no longer in the hands of your judge who simply wants to please the crowd or his very own whims. Roark also chose a tough-looking jury, one consisting of a variety of jobs (675). Each jury affiliate looked like he would not respond to a great appeal for mercy. The jury is usually consistent with Roarks philosophy. Roark does not charm for mercy he recognizes pity quite a bit less a advantage but as a vice. By choosing such a jury, Roark is choosing a fair view, one clear of the altruism that this individual opposes. Consequently , by the decision of this jury, and by the masses looking for an answer with the trial, Seite recognizes which the masses can handle understanding Roarks philosophy, and affirms the fact that reader, too, can figure out.

The prosecutors circumstance, unlike the plaintiffs, is available not as a string of opinions regarding Roark, nevertheless only a string of evidence demonstrating Roark was in fact the builder who also blew up Cortlandt. Around the second time of trial, the prosecutors only sensational witness is a much-changed Philip Keating. Even though the testimony was supposed to be that of a well-known architect publicly confessing inefficiencies, Keating bored the audience together with his admission of guilt. As opposed to at the initial trial, when ever Peter cries out against Roark, Keating now sees that it is inside its final stages for him, that he is a second-hander. Earlier, he goes to Roark for acceptance, but this time for the artwork that he had always wanted to paint, yet had forgotten because of his motivation to get the lucrative profession of an architect. Roark had only to say that it was too late. Now Keating knows he provides lost his soul. His testimony can be described as obtaining the tone of only not caring (676). Your audience sees Keatings give up to his loss: Once Keating remaining the stand, the audience got the strange impression that no alter had occurred in the action of a mans exit, like no person got walked out (677). Keating realizes that he features lost his soul to collectivism underneath the guidance of Toohey. They can do nothing in order to save it. Dominique, although immediately involved in the circumstance, is not asked to testify. The girl now is aware of Roark, and is able to completely love him.

Finally, after Keatings testimony, Roark makes his case. He is now able to testify, as they need not protect what he created, yet explain what he destroyed and why he damaged it. He destroyed the evils of collectivism that Cortlandt Homes represented, and he is protecting the destruction of the collectivism that is engulfing the United States. Roarks testimony identifies the persecution of the considering man, the egoist, throughout the ages of the past. He also describes a choice, not between altruism and domination, but between dependence and self-reliance. Within freedom is the just gauge of human advantage and value (681). This individual describes the second-handers, who only utilize the creations of others and rely upon what other folks think of all of them. He details the rulers of males who are not egoists but second-handers whom depend on the submission with their subjects to rule. And he finally describes the true creators to which he dedicates his accounts. Roarks talk is extremely summary. It is only powerful, not to the jury, but to the reader, due to changes that contain taken place in one trial to the next. We have noticed the extremes Roark is usually discussing in each of the personas of The Fountainhead. Because of the visitors close regards to the personas, there is a tangible foundation upon which Roarks abstract philosophy rests in the visitors mind. Flanke uses the changing character types and build-up of philosophy between the trial offers to support Roarks testimony. Between the first and the second trial Keating gives up to the loss in his self-reliance to Toohey, Toohey traces his beliefs clearly to Keating, Dominique finally accepts Roark as part of this world, Gail Wynand, not born to become a second-hander, practically saves himself and then succumbs to the mass opinion. The path of each character shifts and converges in Roark, whose path is usually unchanging. The culmination of these transformations and philosophies is in the second trial, and Roarks testimony accomplishes the purpose of The Fountainhead to spread the ideals of individualism and objectivism. And because the court picked simply by Roark recognizes, as Rand believes you should appreciate, he is found not guilty.

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