Avoidance and care of pressure ulcers essay


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Pressure ulcers can be a commonly viewed problem between elderly hospitalized patients. Despite new conclusions about the causes and approaches to treatment, the incidence of such wounds remains to be increasing. Jeff, Gibran, Engrav, Mack and Rivara (2006) revealed that throughout the thirteen many years of their research, the prevalence of pressure ulcer expansion has more than doubled. As our elderly population becomes greater in number, and older in age, this issue is expected to escalate. It is of great importance for the patients as well as for the establishments to find the best practice guidelines to manage the occurrence of preventable wounds.

Many hospitals incorporate strict avoidance measures with good results, and others will be more concentrated on treating the problem after that occurs, without having to pay much attention to prevention. In XY medical center, patients in danger do not get the necessary preventive care, and many patients’ existing wounds generally become contaminated, and instead of healing, they deteriorate. This kind of paper will review the research regarding the best prevention methods, as well as the finest evidence based treatment of pressure ulcers, then suggestions how to implement all those findings in XY clinic.


In aged and figé patients, what are the most effective prevention and treatment methods to reduce the occurrence and complications of pressure ulcers, compared to simply no prevention and standard wet-to-dry dressings?


Effective managing of pressure ulcers starts with a complete assessment in the patient, with careful consideration of the risk factors. Hess (2004) reported that the Braden Level is the most frequently used risk assessment tool. Also, it is important to regularly check the skin of the patients discovered to be at risk. Such inspection should target particularly on the areas around bony prominences. Bethell (2005) argues that once level one pressure ulcer evolves, the permanent damage to the tissue varieties, and this will progress to open, deeper wound if pressure is certainly not relieved. Level one is thought as a change of intact skin in one or more of the next: skin temperatures, color, cells consistency and sensation (Hess).

Unfortunately, the staff at XY hospital is only concerned with skin area breakdown, when assessing to get pressure ulcers. No elimination strategies happen to be implemented to get patients in danger until they will develop level two ulcers, when epidermis breakdown is visible. One article notes that educational in-service for employees is effective, and results in the professionals’ better understanding and ability of staging pressure ulcers (Thompson, Langemo, Anderson, Hanson and Hunter, 2005). It is necessary that prevention approaches are applied for all people at risk from the moment that risk is recognized, whether there may be an existing muscle injury or not.

One other study indicates that the physique can go through great amount of pressure intended for short time periods, but low pressure for any long timeframe causes significant tissue damage (Maklebust, 2005). Repositioning of people should be performed at least every two hours or more often if required. The author suggests that when repositioning the patient on the side, she or he should be recognized in a 30-degree lateral position rather than in a 90-degree angle. These kinds of position eliminates the pressure of the bony prominences for the softer tissues. Also, the top of the pickup bed should be maintained at lower than 30 degrees to avoid the shearing pushes caused by person’s sliding during sex (Maklebust).

Moreover, studies suggest that ideal lifting products should be utilized to prevent chaffing during copy and transfering (Grey, Harding and Enoch, 2006). Likewise, patients’ heels are often subjected to pressure and friction. Employees at XY hospital occasionally elevates patients’ heels by placing them in folded quilts. Literature suggests that the pumps should be hung, with a pillow case or a quilt placed under the bottom legs (Maklebust). Additionally , the usage of pressure alleviating mattress is inspired, but it will not eliminate the need for frequent position changes (Hess, 2004).

Furthermore, another element creating a risk for pressure ulcer development is usually malnutrition. Wysocki (2002) discovered that 15 to 50% of hospitalized patients happen to be malnourished. Rns should be alert to inadequate nutrition and its effects. Also, Cobb and Warner (2004) observed that when 30 % of excess weight is lost, spontaneous pressure ulcers begin to develop, and prevention strategies might not operate. In addition , urinary and fecal incontinence can also be significant risk factors. Incontinence results in extra moisture, and irritation with the skin. The nurses and assistive staff in XY hospital often do not assist their énurétique patients intended for long periods of time, and so they do not utilize available pores and skin protectants.

Studies confirmed the potency of no-rinse skin cleansers and water barrier products, and found that they can were more unlikely to damage skin honesty than soap and water (Thompson, et al., 2005). The results also advise that checking out the patients for soiling just about every two hours adds to the performance. Although not most pressure ulcers are avoidable and treatable, the materials provides encouraging evidence that appropriate reduction protocols cure the incidence of stage a single and two pressure ulcers, and in turn decrease the number of pressure ulcers that could progress to stage 3 and 4 (Thompson, ain al. ).

Moreover, an essential part of existing wound managing is injury bed prep, and use of appropriate dressings. Cobb and Warner (2004) suggest that applying dressings without debriding will never heal the wound, and constitutes squandered time and effort. The authors as well point out that: “debridement must be thought of as a continuing process. Initial debridement should be followed by repair debridement(Cobb & Warner). Necrotic tissue and excess slough encourage microbial proliferation, hence the debris should be removed to be able to promote recovery. Three types of debridement, as defined by McGuckin, Goldman, Bolton and Salcido (2003), can be carried out or used by a registered nurse. Mechanical debridement, which is conducted with wet-to-dry dressings, although effective, may be painful when ever dry gauze is pulled off, and can also take away healthy damaged tissues. Enzymatic debridement is the using enzymatic creams that break down the useless tissue, yet can also absorb the viable tissue.

The final, autolytic debridement, involves the action of natural nutrients under hydrocolloid or film dressings. Among such dressings, Polymem, comes in XY medical center. The product is made up of a injury cleanser, a bacteriostatic, a moisturizer, and an fascinating, gripping, riveting agent which absorbs 10 times its very own weight in exudate. Polymem also helps bring about formulation of granulation cells (McGuckin, ou al. ). Another valuable dressing available in XY medical center is Aquacel Ag, an absorbent dressing composed of hydrofiber impregnated with ionic sterling silver. Research results recommend that for autolytic debridement, as well as for the reduction and remedying of infection (Dowsett, 2004). Inside the presence of moisture in the wound, metallic ions will be released and bind to cells including bacteria. It really is recognized as a highly effective broad-spectrum anti-bacterial dressing (Dowsett).

In addition , Ovington (2001) pointed out the difference between the regular wet-to-dry and wet-to-moist dressings, which are often wrongly considered as 1. Wet-to-dry is intended for debridement, and the gauze should be permitted to dry ahead of it is taken out. Wet-to-moist is intended to remain wet until removal, but it typically becomes wet-to-dry in practice. Nevertheless , the author signifies that the regular wet gauze dressing is usually not an optimal wound proper care, but irrespective of hundreds of new more effective products, gauze is still widely used. In vitro studies demonstrate that bacteria were capable of going through up to sixty four layers of dry gauze, and damp gauze presents even fewer barrier to bacteria. It is often also demonstrated that contamination rates in wounds with moist gauze dressings will be higher than in wounds with film or hydrocolloid dressings (Ovington). Fresh dressings turn into widely available, and ongoing studies needed to give you the evidence for the most effective choices.


Good leaders prosper on continuous change. Rendering of a modify isnever an individual action although involves a proper designed, thorough plan, and a step-by-step process. The first thing of putting into action change should be to identify the situation. The staff in XY clinic has to be aware of the need to change their practice related to pressure ulcers. In accordance to Lewin (Marquis & Huston, 2006, p. 173) this is known as unfreezing. Presenting statistical info of pressure ulcer happening on the unit, and evaluating it to other devices or hospitals, and to express or countrywide goals reveal the existing issue. The staff must recognize and understand the issue, and be encouraged to do something to fix the issue. Educating the staff on the subject through verbal and written interaction will help sending the message.

The second phase is activity (Marquis & Huston, 2006, p. 173). This next step starts with creating an discrepancy by elevating the driving forces, which in turn lead persons toward the change, or reducing preventing forces, which in turn repel change. It requires expanding an action program, defining objectives, and creating goals. The appropriate strategies need to be planned and implemented steadily. A careless approach to solving the matter could cause frustration. Educational in-service pertaining to the staff updating about precautionary guidelines explained in analysis, commonly noticed problems, and many effective evidence based approaches will start the exchange of ideas.

The leader has to acknowledge that folks might interact to change in other ways. Some will certainly feel motivated and energized, while others will feel threatened and dissatisfied. Marquis and Huston (2006, p. 180) inform that it is most effective once all those troubled by a change are involved in planning that change. Effort and conversation with personnel are needed to gain a comprehension of what they value and hold as important. Gearing the interaction toward one common desire will certainly lead to creating an effective and achievable prepare. As was once done for the unit in XY hospital, a detect could be submitted in the staff break space encouraging most to write tips and ideas on how to apply the needed changes. Then, action actions using all those ideas needs to be structured cooperatively.

With the program in hand, the leader should trigger the transform process. Marquis and Huston (2006, p. 181) state that leaders has to be engaged in change by position modeling and assisting staff to motivate them. The nurses and theassistive staff should be informed and motivated to check incontinent patients more often to ensure that they can be not wet and ruined for continuous periods of time, nevertheless the leader will need to initiate these actions him/herself. Asking personnel to help disperse the skin security supplies to each incontinent patient’s room can ease the transition. It is necessary to show determination and consistency in employing the change to avoid frustration. Moreover, the innovations which will result in simpler and less operate can be expected to get adopted practically immediately.

For instance , applying Polymem and Aquacel Ag is significantly easier and faster than time consuming moist gauze dressings. It can also be predicted that the most challenging part of the strategy would be employing prevention approaches for patients at risk, but devoid of pressure ulcers. Repositioning people, lifting all of them appropriately, checking for dampness, and suitable feeding happen to be time consuming and labor intensive. The best choice has to be capable to energize others, and be regularly interested and committed to the plan, until accomplished. Each of the strategies has to be released one at a time, to allow slow adjustment. Marquis and Huston (p. 173) suggest that to be accepted, change needs for least three to 6 months.

The last period of the modify theory is usually refreezing. The change has to be stabilized and integrated into its condition (Marquis & Huston, 2006, p. 173). Recognizing and acknowledging the hard work of the staff should never be forgotten. Thanking for the commitment enhances work overall performance and fulfillment. Also, reevaluation is necessary to modify and increase the change while needed. Prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of pressure ulcers need to be a team efforts in order to be effective.


Pressure ulcers stay a serious type of wound found among various hospital people. Despite the recently developed strategies to prevent and manage these wounds, their particular incidence is still growing. Evaluating risk factors and identifying maximum prevention tactics are the initial line of defense. Regular rest from pressure, utilization of lift bedsheets, use of incontinence skin obstacles, and repair of adequate nutrition are the primary preventiveinterventions. On the other hand, some sufferers may develop skin malfunction despite superior quality care. Maximum wound care requires a continuing debridement of devitalized cells, and ideal dressings which will promote curing.

Healthcare professionals have a wide variety of new treatment plans from which to choose coming from, and should become moving away from using the ineffective and labor intensive gauze dressings. Putting into action appropriate ways to better control pressure ulcers based on up-to-date evidence requires good management skills. The main element aspects of accomplishing the objective are: developing a good program, gaining interest of the staff, and becoming committed to the finish. To implement any transform successfully, commanders have to way it with dedication and enthusiasm. In the end, the end desired goals of our recurring clinical challenges always should be promote the patient’s recovery, to reduce useless suffering, and also to improve the quality lifestyle.


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