Info communications program essay

1 . Concept.

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2 . Sender

3. Recipient.

four. Transmission method.

5. Protocol.

Q1-11) Why are protocols needed?

To achieve end-to-end delivery of information.

Q-17) Explain the difference among an Internet draft and a proposed common? ” An Internet draft can be described as working file (a function inprogress) with no official position and a six- month lifetime. ” A recommended standard is elevated to draft regular status following atleast two successful self-employed and interoperable implementations. Q2-5) A host communicates with another host making use of the TCP/IP process suite. Precisely what is the unit of data sent or perhaps received each and every of the pursuing layers? a.

application layer: Message w. network part: Datagram c. data-link part: Frame

Q2-12) When we admit the transportation layer multiplexes and demultiplexes application layer messages, do we mean that a transport-layer process can incorporate several messages from the software layer in one packet? Explain. The TCP/IP protocol suite uses many protocols a few layers, we can say that we now have multiplexing with the source and demultiplexing on the destination.

Multiplexing in this instance means that a protocol in a layer can encapsulate a packet from a lot of next-higher layer protocols (one at a time); demultiplexing means that a protocol can decapsulate and deliver a packet to several next-higher layer protocols (one for a time). To be able to multiplex and demultiplex, a process needs to have a field in its header to identify that protocol the encapsulated packets belong. At the transport coating, either UDP or TCP can recognize a message from several application-layerprotocols. At the network layer, IP can accept a portion from TCP or a consumer datagram via UDP. IP can also agree to a supply from other protocols such as ICMP, IGMP, and so on. At the data-link layer, a frame might carry the payload coming from IP or various other protocols including ARP.

P1-4) For each with the following several networks, go over the consequences in the event aconnection falls flat. a. Five devices organized in a nylon uppers topology. It Will not failed n. Five devices arranged in a star topology (not counting the hub). It Will not failed c. Five devices set up in a bus topology. It can failed

deb. Five devices arranged within a ring topology. It will failed P2-11) Protocol layering are available in many aspects of our lives including air exploring. Imagine you make a round-trip to spend time on vacation for a holiday resort. You need to go through some processes at your city airport before flying. You also need to go through some processes at the time you arrive at the resort airport. Show the protocol layering to get the round trip applying some tiers such as luggage checking/claiming, boarding/unboarding, takeoff/landing.

1-Print your boarding pass and check your suitcases.

2-Head to protection.

3-Find your gate/terminal.

4- Hang out and wait for the plane.

5-Wait intended for the story to plank.

6-Get your boarding pass examined.

7-Enter the plane.

8-Stow your carry on items.

9- Receive settled in.


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