Numerical analysis and dimension of electric field


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Abstract— A small Gigahertz Slanted Electromagnetic (GTEM) Cell is made and fabricated to generate homogeneous electric (E-) field, essential for studying the RF coverage effect on cells equivalent liquids at Global System to get Mobile (GSM) Communication eq (914MHz and 2 . 10GHz). The simulation procedure is discussed and its results are compared with measurement info. The E-field strength inside the GTEM cell is sought using a microstrip based E-field probe and complete uncertainty evaluation procedure is discussed. Theoretical, simulated and measured E-field strength is reported with expanded uncertainty.

Keywords— E-field �bung, GTEM cell, Microstrip, RF exposure, Uncertainness


A Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) cellular is fabricated to generate sommable uniform Electric power (E-) discipline strength to study the effect of RF coverage on tissue-equivalent liquids [1]. The design of the GTEM cell can be optimized to get 914MHz and 2 . 10GHz, two most frequently used frequencies of communication in India. The GTEM cellular design [2] is controlled on HFSS [3], which is depending on well-known numerical method for electromagnetic problems Finite Element Method (FEM). A dual-band microstrip E-field �bung is used to measure the E-field strength. The performance with the probe is definitely exhaustively characterized, details receive in [4]. This kind of paper compiles the outcomes of the measurements that are accomplished for E-field strength. The matching condition and E-field strength for different positions and at distinct fed electric power inside GTEM cell has. For validation of the way of measuring, another commercially available isotropic E-field probe can be used and answers are compared. The analytical benefit of E-field strength is usually calculated and reported.


The designed prototype of the GTEM cell is shown in Fig. 1 . Aluminum is used to fabricate the GTEM cellular casing and copper is employed for the inner conductor my spouse and i. e. septum which is backed with Teflon covering. An N-type connector is used to provide the feeding to the cell. The connector flag is connected to the septum as well as the cell real estate is grounded with the connector. The nasal septum is supported with the higher sheet with microwave-transparent Teflon rods in order to avoid sagging while using running span in z-direction. Commercially available 4cm pyramidal microwave absorber is employed for complementing of the impedance and termination of the cellular. The design parameters of the cellular are schematically shown in Fig. a couple of (a-b).

The use of birdwatcher backed by Teflon coating is recommended to control the generation of higher purchase modes due to the direct multiple reflections in the septum on its own. The effect of septum is definitely studied using the simulation effects. The pointed shape of the GTEM cell ensures 50Ω characteristic impedance along the direction of propagation. It was comprehended from [1] that the design and style parameters will be theoretically enhanced for GSM band regularity ranges. Therefore, it is identified suitable for our purpose plus the design is employed to fabricate the cell for GSM and additionally Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems (UMTS) band studies. As part of electromagnetic characterization in the GTEM cellular, Voltage Standing up Wave Ratio (VSWR) of the cell is usually measured at the frequencies appealing. The ruse of the design, Fig. a couple of (c), can be carried out beforehand on NO ANO DE software-HFSS [2] to ensure the GTEM cell features.


A. Deductive Approach

The E-field power E inside GTEM cellular is calculable from nasal septum height h, fed electrical power P, feature impedance Z ., modulation Meters and flatness F, succumbed [5] as

. (1)

However , the evaluation of they would can be built using the reality electric field in the x-direction can be provided by


where, V is the type voltage. It could hence end up being estimated that at h=0. 119m and input power of 0dBm in 50W system, the electrical field will probably be


N. Finite Aspect Method based Mathematical Version

The nasal septum conductor once coated with material, just like Teflon, the actual and electric field adjustments due to the difference in the effective relative permittivity inside the GTEM cell. The frequency dependence and effect of Teflon is usually studied using HFSS simulation. An remark plane is made at z=240mm from the input port. The simulation benefits on this aircraft are talked about in the following section.


The GTEM cell is definitely characterized depending on VSWR dimension along with the simulation and dimension results of electrical field durability. The scored VSWR with the GTEM cellular loaded with gripping, riveting dielectric polyurethane foam at 914MHz is 1 . 34±0. 02 and at 2 . 10GHz the worthiness is 1 ) 14±0. 02. The ruse gave the VSWR with the order of just one. 15. The difference is accounted due to higher mismatch inside the real structure than regarding the ideal lab-created one. The detailed dimension results of VSWR and reflection pourcentage (Γ) get in Stand I.


914 MHz installment payments on your 10 GHz


GTEM cell terminated by microwave impregnar 1 . 32 0. 1379 1 . 16 0. 0654

Microstrip E-field probe inserted 1 . thirty-three 0. 1416 1 . 14 0. 0654

Standard Isotropic E-field probe inserted

1 ) 34 zero. 1452 1 ) 16 0. 0740


A miniature GTEM cell can be fabricated having length of 450mm. The deviation in electric field durability due to the a result of Teflon covered septum conductor is examined in detail. A comprehensive numerical evaluation and ruse is completed for the development of GTEM cell. The E-field strength inside the GTEM cell, at a distance of 240mm from the suggestions port, is definitely scanned using a microstrip E-field probe with an widened uncertainty of ±0. 80V/m at 914MHz and 2 . 10GHz. Pertaining to the approval of the way of measuring, results are compared to commercially available isotropic E-field �bung. A homogeneous E-field strength is found Emax=2. 94V/m (theoretical E=2. 86V/m) at center of the GTEM cell against +10dBm given power. The GTEM cell is consequently a suitable publicity system intended for studying the effect of RF radiation about different selections. The uniform electric discipline strength produced inside the arranged GTEM cell ensures successful studies of exposure.

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