Psychodynamic Theories Essay
As a group over the last few weeks we have been dicussing has a group the 3 primary theories of counselling along with careful deliberation ive chosen to do my own presentation on the psychodynamic theory. Psychodynamics is a theory and systematic research of the psychological forces that underlie individual behaviour. It is especially interested in the dynamic relations among conscious and unconscious motivation.
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Psychodynamic solutions depend upon a theory of inner issue, wherein repressed behaviours and emotions area into the patient’s consciousness; generally, one turmoil is subconscious. Psychodynamics was developed by Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. By the middle 1940s and into the 1955s, the general application of the psychodynamic theory have been well established.
Once talking about Psychodynamic theory the first identity that jumps into many peoples heads is Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud came to be in Austria on May 6, 1856, Sigmund Freud made the theory and utilized neuropsychology, learning first hysteria and then libido. A highly controversial intellectual determine of the 20th century, he studied dreams, defined what he named the Oedipus complex and laid out three stages of infantile sex development.
This individual remains probably the most influential characters in today’s world. Call him by his name alone symbolizes the importance of his ideas, and the name that involves most people’s heads the moment saying the term psychology is definitely Sigmund Freud. Freud was a psychodynamic psychologist and that originated in Freud’s approach to the mind is in the shape of a great iceberg.
He believes that mankind’s brain works inside the unconscious. Just about every choice that mankind makes he is mindful of, but maybe the effects of our action might be unfamiliar. The Composition of Character which is an additional interesting component to Freud’s theory basically says that we have an ID, a Superego and an Spirit.
The IDENTIFICATION is a natural reservoir of urges and impulses that need to be gratified. He admits that the IDENTIFICATION does not have a mindful, it acts on instinct and it attempts out gratification and delight. It is the delight principle. The Superego is the Morality Rule, and the Superego knows the difference between correct and wrong.
The Superego is a couple of learned internalized morals and values of society. This is basically the thing that keeps the ID under control. Freud stated that Superego can be our conscious, and that the Superego is the most strong tool (guilt and pride). Last but not least is definitely the Ego, which is the reality basic principle.
The Spirit finds socially acceptable ways to satisfy the IDENTIFICATION. It detects the balance between the ID and reality. The functions of the Ego is to find a compromise between your ID plus the Superego. The Ego must also learn to cope with anxiety, and in addition it helps to increase the self-esteem. With no Ego there would be no mental health.
Following researching Freud’s theory in the Structure of Personality Personally i think we have different parts of our habit that we can control which we are conscious about in addition to other manners that come straight from our unconscious. Our spirit lies to us, forbids, falsifies, and distorts reality which in turn triggers us to produce what Freud likes to call up the seven defense mechanisms. The first of the seven body is Repression. Repression pushes the problem for the subconscious. It is the exclusion of impulses and thoughts through the conscious brain.
Next comes Denial, and denial is the cutting with the conscious mind from external threats. ANTHONY BILLSON your five. 2 SITE 3 Among the this would be while you are walking in the mall together with your girlfriend and a beautiful female walks by simply and you appearance but when your girlfriend asks you say, I wasn’t taking a look at her. Next we have a defense system called Sublimation which is the changing of bad habit and impulses into socially acceptable behavior and urges.
One example of the could be playing football for any scholarship to be able to go to college or university. Another security mechanism is usually Reaction Creation which is a development of behavior reverse of that which in turn brings you panic. The next mechanism is called Output whichis if the unconscious remise of your thoughts and feelings is usually brought upon others. Finding flaws in others is a good example of Discharge. Displacement is a next protection mechanism, and this is for the urge is put onto one other object.
Taking out anger upon others at the time you really should be crazy at yourself. Last but not least is the defense device of Rationalization which is giving a good reason instead of the true purpose. Another recognized psychologist which is actually a student of Freuds’ is Carl Jung that is also a psychodynamic psychologist, Carl Jung was developed July 26, 1875 in Kesswil, Switzerland and this individual went a little deeper than Freud performed in his hypotheses and this individual challenges a number of his suggestions. One is that Jung’s iceberg is right part up and at the top from the iceberg may be the ego, and the level below that is the personal unconscious, plus the final level of the banquise is finally the collective unconscious which is almost the exact opposites of Freud’s.
The reason by further is that this individual feels that man is not merely sexual but spiritual too. He says which the major big difference in person is based on the Libido which is your interest in sex. As you can see Jung has a much broader amount of human curiosity. Jung theories are firmly based on Darwin’s theory of Evolution. Jung thinks we all evolved behaviorally which has allowed us to prosper and move forward to keep up with society.
The next element of Carl Jung’s theory is definitely the Archetypal Sophisticated, which are common ways of dealing with the world. Quite simply it’s a genetically transmitted response strategy. It guarantees survival. You will discover two types of Archetypal Complexes and they are the enemy archetype and the sociable archetype..
You will find examples in everyday life when a person would not know what something happens to be they immediately show some type of aggression or frustration which proves they are scared of what is distinct or what they do not really find out or figure out. The sociable archetype essentially means durability in quantities. Also the social archetype is what we look to intended for support and appearance to communicate and interact socially with.
The response approach is to produce a need to adjust. With the complete idea of Archetypal Complexes differing people use different methods to deal with the world’s challenges, and opponent archetype cannot be more exact about mankind being endangered by a thing that is different. The next part of Jung’s theory is the idea of Division which is the integration of our conscious perceptions with the outside community with our subconscious archetypal encounters.
Polarities, which are opposite extremes, which jewelry in the Rule of entropy which, is actually a state of disorder and a randomness of energy. The last thing Jung declares in his theory is the notion of wholeness which is having both polarities of our life attained. Carl Jung’s theory issues much of Freud’s, but in a lot of ways is similar. Jung gets more in to man staying more religious than sexual which is practically the opposite of Freud. The next psychologist that we will point out will be a sociable psychodynamic psychologist by the name of Alfred Adler.
Adler was born in February 7, 1870 and Adler’s theory states that every one of us happen to be born with a sense of inferiority as evidenced simply by how fragile and helpless a newborn is. ANTHONY BILLSON 5. two PAGE four By this, Adler was able to make clear that this inferiority is a essential part of each of our personality, in the sense that it is the driving force that pushes us to endeavor in order to become outstanding. In addition to the Inferiority Theory of Personality, Adler also considers birth purchase as a significant factor in the introduction of our persona.
He thought that first born children may feel inferior and may even develop inferiority complex once their younger cousin arrives. The middle born kids, on the other hand, are not as pampered as their elderly or more youthful sibling, however they have a sense of superiority to dethrone their older sibling in a healthier competition. Thus they have the very best potential to achieve success in life. The youngest kids may feel as if they have the smallest amount of power to effect other family members. Because they are often the most relaxing treatments, they may develop personality problems of inferiority just like the 1st born.
He was a lesser amount of of a pessimist than Freud was; Nearly a complete contrary from Freud. Adler thought that culture impedes individuals. His view of the head is much like Carl Jung’s, nevertheless instead of having the ego at the pinnacle he gets the conscious at the very top with the unconscious on the bottom. This individual felt that social passions drive determination, which is an innate drive to be social and to fit in. He also stated in his theory that mankind is dependent on others and their reactions and their acknowledgement which in turn leaves mankind extremely vulnerable.
The key idea of this theory is the fact he feels that the human race is more social than natural. A great case in point ofthis would certainly be that in today’s schools you will find cliques and clans of various people that feel that they are chiller or better and compared to the people who are quite a bit less popular perform whatever they can to fit along with a certain group. Teenagers today are probably the best example there is certainly of Adler’s theory of social fascination.
Another part of Adler’s theory that this individual brings up is the idea of the creative personal which he admits that drives all of us toward human nature. There are two parts to the theory and perhaps they are the superiority complicated and the inferiority complex. To begin with the superiority sophisticated states the human race tries to better itself in order to overcome the weaknesses. The 2nd part of this kind of theory is the inferiority complex which is once society measures us about their specifications.
This is when all of us begin to steer clear of our disadvantages instead of aiming to overcome them. The next theorist is Erich Fromm who had been born in Frankfurt about March 23, 1900 and he was a liberal interpersonal psychodynamic psychiatrist who was also a student of Freuds. This individual believes that man can be innately good and contemporary society is the factor that corrupts him. This individual also seems that the conscious mind rules over the unconscious. Fromm says man is actually a social creature and he believes that mankind features social demands.
He says a lot more a struggle and society makes our lives tough. Fromm seems that the several needs of mans’ sociable life are relatedness, frame of guide, identity, and transcendence. Relatedness is a basic need and that states that man should feel attached to humanity whether it be friends, family members, or actions.
It also claims that gentleman has to beinteracted with other to be able to belong. The difficulties start each time a person feels that they are not really a part of something. Relatedness is probably the most powerful need.
Frame of Reference are routine ideas and beliefs of looking at the world. This is when we seek out a belief program or a benefit system. We receive our frame of reference from where we find our relatedness. Without framework of reference point there is no that means to life. Identification is the up coming out of the several needs of mans sociable life which is when you know who you are and what you symbolize.
With identity you have to create your personal uniqueness or perhaps identity. Realizing differences in other folks help you to locate your individual identity. ANTHONY BILLSON five. 2 WEBPAGE 5 Up coming comes transcendence which is rarely achieved which means to rise above societies conformities in order to be an individual.
With transcendence there is a risk of losing your relatedness, and then for this to never happen relatedness must allow you rise above society. A discord of independence and isolation means that the more that we become transcendent a lot more we reduce the relatedness. My previous theorist to talk about is Erik Erikson, having been born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1902. Erikson afflicted psychological theories by increasing upon Freud’s original five stages of development.
This individual believed that every person progressed through 8, and in the end nine (added by his widow), periods of advancement throughout all their lives. Erikson’s theories were founded on the premise that environment played a major role in self-awareness, adjustment, human development, and identity. His opinion in the Your life Cycle later on won him a Pulitzer Prize and a National Book Honor.
He was chosen for the Jefferson Spiel and identified for his achievement in the area of humanities. Erikson was most widely known for his impact on psychology through his theory upon social advancement and his lengthy teaching career at exclusive institutions. At this point after all my own researching that has took me a long time to get through trigger there are so many sources to choose from ive realised that has psychodynamic ideas have developed through the years our comprehension of the human psyche has evolved and thus as the effectiveness of the methods employed by counsellors today.
There is a negative side to this theory though cause some critics argue that psychodynamic theories are generally not falsifiable and thus unscientific. Reacting to this criticism, proponents of psychodynamic hypotheses point out that evidence truly does support a lot of psychodynamic principles. For example , research shows that there are unconscious mental processes, that individuals have mental representations of other people, which people use unconscious immunity process to protect themselves from upsetting emotions including anxiety.
Other critics argue that psychodynamic ideas are made by simply generalizing from a small number of individuals to the entire human population. Relying only on case research can lead to defective conclusions. Still others believe most psychodynamic theories aren’t based on studies that follow persons from child years to adulthood.
Instead, psychodynamic theorists tune in to descriptions associated with an adult patient’s past and draw results about the relevance of childhood experiences however recollections are not often reliable.
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