Proteus mirabilis essay

The genus Proteus, relating to Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, is a group of straight pole Gram unfavorable bacteria around 0. 4-0. 8 μm in size and 1-3 μm long. In the minute test completed, it was found that the unidentified culture comprised rods that are on the short side, therefore was recognized as bacteria that appear to be coccobacilli. Because of the presence of peritrichous flagella, kinds included this kind of genus are motile and a lot strains swarm in routine cycles, making a characteristic concentric swarming design, or spread in a consistent film more than nutrient media solidified with agar or gelatin, which can be evident in the streak plates completed over the course of a little while, the ability plates displaying the bacterias spreading over the entire agar agar plate with a hazy, over cast appearance.

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Motility of the not known was as well proven through the indirect approach to inoculating Motility S method.

Like different members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, it is also facultatively anaerobic, plus the unknown lifestyle was proved to be as such through the use of Fluid Thioglycollate Broth, or FTB method.

The genus Proteus is known to catabolize glucose and some other carbs, with the development of chemical p and usually gas. As for the unknown, it absolutely was able to ferment glucose (without the production of gas, as the Bowmanville tube positioned inside the PUBLIC RELATIONS Glucose had not been displaced) and sucrose, but not lactose. The abovementioned genus is also indicated to produce a unfavorable result in oxidase test and a positive result in catalase test, plus the unknown made negative and positive results in those assessments, respectively. The genus is usually indicated inside the Bergey’s manual as having a positive result in the methyl red (MR) evaluation; however , the unknown primarily produced a poor result (after adding 8-10 drops with the MR sign, the unknown’s color changed to a yellow-orange result) which can be the sole disparity in this report.

However , it truly is possibly essential to note that after having a short although, the contents of the conduit containing the MR check changed returning to a shade of red, possibly demonstrating that the traditions is indeed methyl red great. Other significant characteristics with this genus will be the following: types vary leads to indole, Voges-Proskauer, and Cimmons citrate evaluation; Proteus produces negative bring about lysine decarboxylase and a good result in both phenylalanine deaminase and urease test; H2S is usually produced; and gelatinase production is often positive. Several tests must be conducted to increase eliminate different candidates for the personality of the unknown organism, on this occasion to identify the unknown’s types name. With the use of Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, this kind of tests will be indicated the following: indole evaluation, Voges-Proskauer evaluation, cysteine desulfurase test (H2S production), evaluation for ornithine decarboxylase, acid production in maltose and D-Xylose.

According to Bergey’s Manual, out of your four species in the genus Proteus, only Proteus vulgaris indicates a good result intended for the natura test. The unknown culture had a negative result intended for the indole test, hence eliminating the possibility of Proteus cystic as the possible identity of the unknown culture. The Voges-Proskauer (VP) test outcomes for types in the Proteus genus also differ, and this would possibly remove one or two types. Because the VP test result of the not known is positive, it gets rid of Proteus vulgaris once again, as well as Proteus penneri, which both have negative brings about the VP test. To help eliminate additional species, the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) development test employing Kligler’s Iron Agar (KIA) slant can also be used. The unidentified had a confident result for H2S production, and as such, removed Proteus myxofaciens from the feasible identities with the unknown, thus bringing down the possible identification of the not known organism into one: Proteus mirabilis.

According to Bergey’s manual, only Proteus mirabilis decarboxylates ornithine, causing a positive ornithine result. Ornithine is a area of the various checks contained in the Enterotube II evaluation, which was carried out last in the identification of the unknown affected person in the clinical work. The Enterotube II system inoculated with the unknown organism confirmed a positive result for the ornithine test, which additional establishes the unknown organism’s identity since Proteus mirabilis. Furthermore, the code that resulted in the system was either 23007 or 22007, due to a discrepancy together with the H2S evaluation in the Enterotube II pipe (there was black medicine present in the tube; yet , the coloration in the moderate after contamination and incubation was brown, which the clinical manual, titled Benson’s Microbiological Applications, indicated should not be mistaken for true H2S production). Given this dilemma, it had been decided with this student to look through both equally organisms branded under 23007 and 22007.

These two unique codes only called one single organism, that was, again, Proteus mirabilis. The abovementioned results considered led this student to trust that the id of unfamiliar number some is Proteus mirabilis. Other tests that may be used would be the following: chemical p production in maltose is present (positive) for any species of Proteus except for Proteus mirabilis, that includes a negative consequence for the said test out. The D-Xylose acid development test as well results in a good test for any Proteus species except for Proteus myxofaciens, and therefore can be used to get rid of the said test. The Proteus genus could possibly be found in intestines, colon and perineum of humans in addition to a wide variety of pets or animals, and may likewise occur in manure, soil, sewage, as well as contaminated waters. The genus is additionally becoming increasingly connected with pediatric disease, including neonatal meningitis and pediatric urinary tract attacks, but attacks of additional organ systems have been referred to.

Most cases of central nervous system disease caused by Proteus occur in neonates, and contiguous spread towards the brain coming from localized attacks is reported occasionally. In accordance to a log article published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology, Proteus mirabilis is an important pathogen from the urinary system, and is the primary infectious agent in sufferers with indwelling urinary catheters. Furthermore, individuals suffering from urinary tract infections caused by S. mirabilis typically develop bacteriuria, cystitis, kidney and urinary stones, catheter obstruction due to stone encrustation, acute pyelonephritis, and fever.

Also, Proteus mirabilis features more prominently as a urinary pathogen for boys than girls, especially uncircumcised boys. Aside from young boys, Proteus mirabilis targets youthful females seldom, individuals with strength abnormalities with the urinary tract, and the aged. Flagellar existence in Proteus mirabilis assists with its swarming and pathogenic ability, and studies show that their ability to hydrolyze urea allows Proteus mirabilis in becoming a urinary tract virus. Fortunately, most strains of Proteus mirabilis are hypersensitive to ampicillin and cephalosporins.


Booth, C. J. (2003). [http://www.afrma.org/med_illrat.htm]

Gruber, Watts. C., Fisher, R. G., Boyce, Big t. G. (2003). Textbook of pediatric contagious diseases. [http://books.google.com/books?id=G6k0tpPMRsIC&pg=PA1455&lpg=PA1455&dq=proteu


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