Teen justice research paper dissertation


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The juvenile Justice System has gone through many within America and they are represented through six primary periods which will be discussed in this paper. The periods are called the Puritan Age (1646″1824), the Refuge Period (1824-1899), the Juvenile Court docket Period (1899-1960), The Child Rights Period (1960-1980), the Crime Control Period (1980-2005), and The Kids are Different Period (2005-present). Teen Justice features constantly improved depending on the morals, needs and wants of society during a certain time. There are reformers who have fought against and always do so for top interest of juveniles and society.

They may have played a significant role and succeeded in many changes throughout the Juvenile Proper rights history.

Youngsters crime happens to be present in the United States dating to the colonial time period once American towns were 1st established within our country. The way youth criminal offenses has been managed has significantly changed over time. Some people may possibly feel the changes are for the best, and some may well not agree with the alterations.

However , by taking a look at the history in the juvenile system clearly a large number of reformers include fought for changes and laws to safeguard and restore juvenile offenders.

Literature Review

There are 6 main durations in the progress the United States Juvenile Justice program. The first development offers early connections dating back to the 19th century. The earliest attempt to control juvenile patterns was during The Puritan Period from 1646 until 1824. The Massachusetts Stubborn Child Law was passed in 1646. The puritans during this time period viewed kids as wicked and positioned responsibility within the family to discipline and raise youth adults. If the parents were lost; the children would, then be controlled by the law. (Cole, Smith, DeJong page 472). During this time, children over the age of five were treated either as small adults or perhaps property. A seven-year-old child could be sentenced in felony courts. In 1648 in Massachusetts children who heart-broken his normal parents could be put to death (U. S i9000. History). The second period is definitely the Refuge Period from 1824 until 1899. Youth criminal offenses began to develop right alongside American metropolitan areas. As a result, reformers began to develop correctional practices.

The main objective was about urban immigrant poor, aiming to have father and mother declared unsuitable if their children roamed the streets and were uncontrollable. Of course , not all poor migrant children were involved in lawbreaker acts although if the parents had been viewed as not disciplining or perhaps training these to follow society’s rules, the kids would end up in prison. Institutions were opened up, which were 50 percent prison and half college house, andthey were entertained by orphans and kids convicted of crimes. Many children had been placed in these homes as a result of neglect or being destitute and stayed until we were holding adults. The homes were manage by a strict program of work, study and discipline. Reform schools were also opened to provide discipline and education in a home like ambiance. Even with the reform colleges children could still be arrested. The process to get arrests, trial, and imprisonments were the same for children and adults during this time period. (Cole, Smith, DeJong webpage 472).

Another period is definitely the Juvenile The courtroom Period by 1899 right up until 1960. Teen criminality started to be a focus and reformers moved for customized care and treatment to offenders of all types to include mature criminals, the mentally sick, and teen delinquents. They will pushed when you use probation, treatment, indeterminate paragraphs, and losung for adults and succeeded in similar courses for juveniles. The upper-middle class reformers were known as child savers, and they struggled to use the power of state to save lots of children via a life of offense. They fought against for a individual juvenile court docket system that may address complications by using adaptable procedures. An act was passed in 1899 for children under sixteen, which experienced four key parts, they are really a separate the courtroom. for juveniles, fewer adversarial procedures compared to the adult program, separation of children from adults in the program, and courses to assist the courts in deciding precisely what is in the best interest with the child plus the state.

The philosophy originated from the idea that the state of hawaii would deal with a child very much like a good parent will and types of procedures would be casual and private. Sociable workers and psychologists were chosen for the system instead of lawyers since social workers and psychologists could identify the root behavior problem. (Cole, Smith, DeJong page 472 ” 473). In respect to (lawyershop) in the document The History of America’s Juvenile Justice Program the Progressive Era in the usa was via 1900 until 1918 and was a moments of social change. It follows a period of discontent where American’s knowledgeable struggles including the women’s suffrage movement, as well as the fight against child labor. In 1899, the State of Illinois proven the first juvenile courtroom and within 30 years, every one of the states experienced established juvenile courts. The primary difference among juvenile and adult courtroom was that juvenilecourts were city in mother nature and adult courts had been criminal. (Maryland. gov).

Up coming came the Juvenile Legal rights Period coming from 1960 until 1980. In the early 60s lawyers and scholars began to criticize the extent of discernment given to child justice officials, and the U. S. Best court extended the legal rights of juveniles. A assess can now waive jurisdiction and pass a case to mature court. Children in a delinquency hearing received certain step-by-step rights including notice of the charges, directly to counsel, right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, and protection against self- incrimination. Also, one other change is definitely the onset of status offenses, that are acts that are not illegal in the event committed simply by an adult including skipping institution or working away. (Cole, Smith, DeJong pages 473 ” 475). According to (Maryland. gov):

Until the past due 1960s, junior in the juvenile court system did not have constitutional protection under the law. That improved with the U. S. Supreme Court’s 1967 decision in In re Gault. In that case, the Substantial Court concluded that even though teen courts had been civil proceedings, juveniles controlled by these procedures still encountered a potential loss in liberty. For that reason, the Substantial Court necessary that all junior offenders involved in juvenile courtroom proceedings and facing possible confinement have the following constitutional rights:

The right to receive see of expenses

The right to obtain a lawyer

The right to confrontation and cross-examination

The advantage against self-incrimination

The right to receive a transcript of the procedures, and

The justification to have an appellate court’s assessment the lower court’s decision. Due to Juvenile offense, rising inside the 1970’s the Crime Control Period of 1980-2005 came to area. The public require to crack down on crime began in 1980. The juvenile program changed in regard to greater attention being placed on repeat offenders with coverage makers calling for harsher consequence on juveniles who make crimes and juveniles may now be held in preventative detention prior to trial if regarded a risk to contemporary society. Crime control policies triggered a lot more juveniles beingtried in adult process of law and appeared to go beyond the juveniles who were accused of violent crimes. (Cole, Smith, DeJong site 475). Several laws were passed that required police and the courts to automatically charge junior as adults if these were alleged to have committed violent crimes with weapons. (Maryland. gov) We could currently in the Kids Will vary Period, which in turn began in 2005 and is also still going on.

This is a new era in juvenile proper rights brought on by the newest ruling that executions are unconstitutional intended for crimes determined by any individual younger than 18 years. The judgment was made because juveniles are less deserving of pin the consequence on than adults due to factors such as physical and emotional development contained in emotional advancement that comes from progress and maturity of the human brain. Maturity occurs at age 16, but settings over impulsiveness are not fully developed till age twenty four or twenty six.

Because of this recognition, new applications and regulations are designed to deal with juveniles differently than adults. Emotional and intellectual development results in how children understand or fail to appreciate their rights. The process pertaining to judicial waiver to move juveniles to mature court is definitely not employed as much during this period. Lawyers have become normally present at phases in the process to feature court hearings. Offenders hardly ever up in punitive environments just like training schools and the child justice method is similar to the adult system but not as formal with the intention to continue to keep juveniles in the neighborhood when likely. According to (U. H. History):

In 2012, the Substantial Court ongoing its trend of holding that children cannot be instantly punished similar to the way as adult criminals without taking into account their age and also other factors, by further lording it over that juveniles under the regarding 18 who have commit killing may not receive mandatory your life sentences with any chance for parole. Every single case has to be decided on its own merits, as well as the sentence imposed must consider the child’s grow older and other elements.

The judgment allows idol judges and juries to think about a juvenile’s era when they hand down sentences for some of the harshest offences, instead of producing life in prison with out parole an automatic sentence. The ruling remaining open in the possibility that judges may sentence juveniles to life with out parole in individual circumstances of tough, but explained state and federal laws and regulations cannot immediately impose this sort of a word. The courtroom recognizedthat children need additional attention and protection in the consideration from the unique status of children and their potential for modify.


The Juvenile Rights System has gone through various changed seeing that youth criminal offenses first were only available in America. That continues to alter as reformers fight for teen rights and fight to keep rehabilitation courses. At the end of the day, the Juvenile Product is here to protect the offender as well as the contemporary society as a whole. Juveniles are fresh enough to improve and the rehab programs be worthwhile, especially when some juveniles alter and become a productive part of society.


DeJong, C., Cole, G. Farrenheit., & Cruz, C. Elizabeth. (2013). Part 15. In Criminal Rights in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. History of America’s Juvenile Proper rights System. (n. d. ). LawyerShop Site. Retrieved Dec 06, 2014, from http://www.lawyershop.com/practice-areas/criminal-law/juvenile-law/history History of Child Justice in the United States. (n. deb. ). Maryland. gov Office of Juvenile Systems Gathered December 05, 2014, via http://www.djs.state.md.us/history-us.asp U. S. History. (n. g. ). Express of Louisiana/Youth Services/Office of Juvenile Proper rights. Retrieved December 06, 2014: http://www.ojj.la.gov/index.php?page=sub&id=230


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