Viktor frankl an overview of logotherapy
The term ‘Logotherapy’ can be described as taken from the Greek meaning of ‘logos’ and ‘therapy’. ‘Therapy’ is the treatment which is provided to heal a problem. Having looked at the meaning from the term ‘logos, ‘ I had been very astonished that the description was associated with Jesus!
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In accordance to Wikipedia, John’s Gospel identifies the ‘Logos’ as the one whereby all things are manufactured, and further to this describes Christ as being the ‘incarnate Logos’ (incarnate meaning to become embodied in flesh or perhaps taking on flesh)(1)
The Traditional word ‘logos’ traditionally supposed ‘word’, ‘thought’, principle, or perhaps speech.
Two main pathways can be implemented from this- the first being ‘human reason’ (the ability with the human brain to understand the world in a realistic manner) and, as already stated above, ‘universal intelligence’-the sense of the ‘Divine’. (2) To get Frankl the description of his operate seems to indicate the former- this staying ‘human reason’- an individual needing to find a ‘meaning’ for being.
In the book ‘The will to meaning'(3), Frankl is trying to describe the way psychologists/psychiatrists might make an effort to understand the various facets of a runner expressing or finding which means in the world. He could be expressing the several ideas provided by psychoanalysis; Adler; and other persons.
The dimensions (he echoes of human beings as having many dimensions- and that simply by trying to embrace these one is able to get a full photo of who also they are), of ‘logos’ in the scope of logotherapy, implies ‘meaning’, and also suggests ‘spirit’ (as mentioned above). Frankl says this is with no primary religious connotation. He states that ‘logos’ means the humanness of the individual being- as well as the meaning penalized human. (3)
So what My spouse and i gather by his writings; Frankl desired his ‘logotherapy’ to adopt all of what it takes to be individual and also the which means of being human being. (my individual understanding)
Introducing Dr Viktor Frankl
Viktor Frankl was your founder of logotherapy In ‘Mans look for meaning'(1959) the introduction identifies it as the ‘third Viennese college of psychotherapy’- after Freud’s psychoanalysis and Adler’s person psychology(4).
Frankl was born in Vienna to a Jewish family members whose operating background was at the municipal service. Frankl took one other path- he studied treatments at the University of Vienna, where he specialized in neurology (a study of disorders of the nervous system) and psychiatry. The topics he was many interested in had been depression and suicide.
During his time as a medical student, this individual organised an exclusive counselling program for students (this was between 1928 &1930). One particular well known psychiatrist, Charlotte Buhler, was involved. The success of this program resulted in not any students assigning suicide in Vienna in the year 1931.
His completed his neurology and psychiatry training in Vienna in 1937 and soon after set up a private practice.
If the Nazi’s 1st occupied Luxembourg, Viktor experienced the opportunity to run away to America, as he had been granted an immigration visa. He couldn’t decide if to go and pursue his work in logotherapy, or to remain with his parents and deal with the Nazi regime.
This individual explains in ‘Man’s hunt for meaning’ (1992)
‘It was then I noticed a piece of marbled lying over a table at home … (his father) acquired found this on the site the place that the National Socialists had burned up down the greatest Viennese synagogue.. ….. One gilded Hebrew letter was engraved for the piece; my father explained this letter was for one in the commandments…’Honour thy father and thy mother that thy days might be long after the terrain. ‘(p13)
It was the moment that he decided to remain in Vienna with his father and mother and let his visa lapse.
Experiences of life in concentration camp
Although Frankl had already begun to formulate suggestions of logotherapy before the war, it was the time that this individual spent in concentration camps that really corroborate his concepts together and persuaded him that his ideas had a very practical work with.
His encounters of this time are referred to vividly in the book ‘Man’s search for that means; the classic homage to wish from the Holocaust’. This was initially published in German in 1946 and later in English language as ‘From Death-Camp to Existentialism’. After i was starting to think about my research conventional paper, I first read this book. It offered me such insight into the basis of his operate and also in the power that completely to alter the course of could be life.
That he continuing to find which means during this time; inspite of losing his wife, close friend, mother and father inside the Holocaust; I believe is a legs, both to his durability of persona, and to the value of his function. The only surviving member of his family was his sis Stella, who had managed to immigrate to Australia.
The theme, I actually took from his book; was in the struggle found by persons as they attempted to survive prison camp existence, both inside the confines that they found between each other (as fellow prisoners) and when facing the Capos (prisoners who were given unique privileges), and then the SS guards. What stood out to me is that Frankl identified – inspite of the Capos staying Jewish criminals, that they were comparable to the SS protections and the camp wardens, on a psychological basis. (5).
We took from the book that, the reality of prison existence seemed, not just a war up against the Nazi’s; although against persons, and about the time that could be throughout and among each other to survive the environment. The problem crossed above normal limitations and meant that people were placed in situations that meant they were stretched three ways: emotionally, actually and psychologically. Those that made it through, were the ones that managed to tackle all these: and yet remain. It was within these kinds of confines, that Viktor Frankl managed, not just in survive, and remain sane; but as well to write down his experiences; run as a doctor, and to collect his restorative ideas- into ‘logotherapy. ‘
I want to deliver into this kind of paper a fundamental element of his encounters in the focus camps- regarding me it had been such strong reading; this spoke firmly of what Frankl implemented on to emphasis his work on. It also includes a clear communication for anyone who confronts suffering.
Quick the book clearly says that it was not really meant while an account of facts or events – but it turned out an attempt to make sense of the experiences that were faced by the prisoners that Frankl was a part of. (6). I translate this to mean that not necessarily important to look into the detail of the book, but for take via it the essence from the reality of living in this kind of extreme conditions as a A language like german run attentiveness camp inside the 1940’s.
. Frankl describes the fight for survival when people will be facing staying taken to one other camp- or facing the gas rooms. The 1st vivid information of aiming to survive, was at the face of the decision among those who had been considered as worthless (not in shape to job; weak or perhaps ill) – who would always be sent right to major camps to the gas chambers) and those who tried to appear well and in a position to carry on. In the book, Frankl explains which the fight was major, and this prisoners tried all sorts of ways to stay alive- even arranging for another person to take his place in the transport. Frankl concludes that the best of the people would not remain alive. (7)
Frankl tries to describe that he cannot place his tale as an objective description of what happened; this individual also attempts to explain that numerous people, who had experienced these kinds of awful, brutalized times within a death camp, would not wish to re-experience them. He says that he wanted to publish the book anonymously, but realised that the would mean that lost almost all of its value- so he agreed to everything being posted, even though this individual didn’t desire any of the credit rating. (8)
Existentialism and logotherapy
Frankl started to use the term ‘Existenzanalyse’ as early as the 1930’s. American paperwork translated this term since ‘existential analysis’; but they also converted the work of Ludwig Binswanger in the same way- in German his work was called ‘Daseinsanalyse’.
The American Heritage Book defines ‘existentialism’ as
‘A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards individual existence since unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one’s acts. ‘(8b)
An alternative description is
‘Existentialism is a philosophical way of thinking that is certainly very different from the other philosophical suggestions. It views humans, with will and consciousness, to be in a world of objects that do not effectively have all those qualities. The fact that human beings are conscious of their mortality, and must make decisions of the life is what existentialism is about. ‘[8c]
My own, personal understanding of ‘existentialism’ is that because human beings, since individuals, we have to deal with life, and this brings about the need to generate choices. It recognises the moral energetic and the ought to rationalise activities and their implications.
Because Frankl’s work accepted the concept of existentialism, initially similar definition was handed. However Frankl did not believe that his theory was as such: he explains in the launch of his book ‘Psychotherapy and Existentialism’ (1967), so why he uses the term ‘logotherapy’ rather than ‘existential analysis’.
‘Logotherapy represents one of many schools in the field of psychotherapy, and, more specifically, is recognized as by numerous authors to fall under the class of ‘existential psychiatry…. they (American writers) used a similar term to pay the teachings of the overdue Ludwig Binswanger…Thus existential analysis became a great ambiguous notion. In order not to add to the confusion…I decided to use only the term ‘logotherapy’ and to avoid as much as possible by using its suggestions, existential research, as a translation of Existenzanalyse. ‘(Foreword viii)
What is the basis of Logotherapy?
In his conventional paper ‘The Philosophical Foundations of Logotherapy’ (1963) (9) Frankl discusses the foundation of Logotherapy. He clarifies that logotherapy goes further than existential research because it is not only concerned with becoming or reality (the Ancient greek language term- ‘ontos’), but as well ‘logos’ or meaning. It is not just an research of a subject matter, but it also comes with an application like a therapeutic technique.
The roots of Logotherapy rely upon a certain philosophical check out life; Frankl describes this kind of philosophy while having ‘three fundamental assumptions’ (10).
• Freedom of will
• Will to meaning
• Meaning of life
Liberty of Is going to
This presumption can be explained in terms a person provides the freedom to believe or believe what they decide to. One exemption to this is definitely the schizophrenic sufferer who encounters delusions and voices that can overcome their mind, and sense of reality.
An individual is free to believe; but this is limited by situations in which they will live- whether this is biological, sociological or psychological. The liberty that is always available even so is the choice a person is capable to make regarding his attitude to the instances or condition he encounters. (11)
Will to which means
Frankl distinguishes between ‘instinctual drives’ or ‘needs’ defined in Freudian terms and ‘meaning’: the desire of person to reach out to other people and attempt to find meaning.
In the event meaning was obviously a ‘need’ (as instincts are), then it can lead to the individual planning to satisfy all of them. The difference with ‘meaning’ alive is that it really is achieved if a person finds a purpose through relationship with others. The distinction here is that the emphasis is on the other person and never on the specific seeking which means. In other words, the first one is selfish as well as the second is usually unselfish.
Frankl considers self- actualisation as being a good thing, but only because it can be attained in terms of how much a person finds meaning and purpose in life. It can be another ‘side-effect’.
In ‘Psychotherapy and Existentialism’ (1967), Frankl gives a valuable description of human living. After getting given the gift of any boomerang, he realises the symbolic characteristics it held:
‘Generally, one assumes which a boomerang returns to the hunter; but in fact I have been advised in Australia, a boomerang simply comes back to the hunter because it has overlooked its focus on, the prey. Well man also just returns to himself, to being concerned with his self, after he offers missed his mission, is unsucssesful to find meaning in his your life. ‘(p9)
This individual explains even more that guy finds id only given that he is doing work for some cause or goal, which is over and above himself, or perhaps greater than himself.
To highlight this point, he uses the Scriptures story of when the Israelites were exploring through the wilderness. God’s beauty went available to them as a impair, and showed them the way to go. If the impair had been among the list of people, they can have been blinded and got lost. In the same way, in the event meaning is sought after in a person, then it will be clouded; whereas in the event that meaning is separate or greater than a person, then it can offer direction. (12)
In logotherapy, a person is confronted with the meaning with their life, and as such, who or perhaps what they are liable to/for. This is society, Our god, his notion, humanity. This is the next step in assisting him to find meaning alive.
The Meaning of Life
Precisely what is meaning? Having considered ‘freedom of will’ and then ‘will to meaning’, this prospects us to consider ‘meaning’ and what it requires.
Frankl details life because meaningful in three ways
• In what we could give to your life (our creativity)
• About what we take in the world (experiencing value)
• In the attitude we take in facing some thing we cannot change (such as a fatal disease, damage, in fact any suffering)
Every humanity looks pain, death and sense of guilt, and Frankl believes that logotherapy can help us deal with these and still find meaning. (13)
Pursuing on using this, we can occasionally face what Frankl explains as ‘meaning frustration or existential frustration’ (14). He finds that the presents itself in people who feel that their existence has no which means, especially when that they experience a void which he identifies as a great ‘existential vacuum’. This he finds present in many college students who have dedicated suicide.
By the end of his paper, Frankl referred to Goethe and explained that he was the sort of realist that agreed with all the following declaration:
“If you treat someone as he is definitely, he will remain how he could be. But if you treat him as if this individual were what he should be and could always be, he will turn into what he ought to be and can be. ” ― Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Precisely what is different about Logotherapy to other hypotheses?
In his publication ‘Man’s seek out meaning'(2004) Frankl explains one of the primary differences of logotherapy to psychoanalysis.
‘logotherapy in comparison to psychoanalysis, is a method which is less retrospective and fewer introspective. ‘(p104)
In contrast to psychoanalysis, which deals with a person’s previous and likely explanation to get how they are; logotherapy focuses a person on their future and attempts to find a feeling of which means or goal for their life in the present.
Psychoanalysis is based on the principle that man is going to ‘seek pleasure’- that is his fundamental drive in existing.
Individual psychology (as referred to by Alfred Adler) will be based upon the basic principle that gentleman will strive for ‘power’ or maybe a sense of ‘superiority’ (as opposed to feeling inferior).
Logotherapy focusses on a ‘will to meaning’; the belief that man’s primary drive in existing is usually to find that means and purpose.
In the daily news ‘Beyond self-actualisation and self-expression'(1959)(15) Frankl talks about why man existence is more than just aiming to meet requirements and accomplish satisfaction/equilibrium. He explains that if almost all humans were just trying to sustain their existence, then they would finish up viewing everything in the world around them as just a means of fulfilling their needs. Frankl uses the term ‘monadologistic'(16) to describe this standard of relationship.
Through this paper he considers two common issues- the seeking of pleasure, and seeking peace of mind. If a person were to endeavor purely to get pleasure, Frankl sees that it must be almost always gonna fail. He considers this is because delight is a side-effect of obtaining a task. It is almost as if the pursuit of pleasure exclusively actually damages it (the pleasure) in the process. In the same way he sees that a person gains peace of mind as being a side effect of his way of life, and not by causing it a target.
‘It is actually a tenet of logotherapy that the more one aims at pleasure, the more this individual misses it'(17)
Logotherapy and my own ‘way of working’
The more I have studied logotherapy, the more I feel drawn to the concept of people needing to have a meaning to get ‘being’. Having faced extreme depression and suicidal thoughts; it includes always been the desire for me to focus on why warring is worthwhile. Even during times once i couldn’t ‘feel’ worthwhile, the information that I was needed and mattered in front of large audiences, always sparked me on continue living. It is using this basis, i feel the tips behind logotherapy are very essential.
The problem I are still facing is whether I include this kind of perspective during my work as a counsellor. After that it follows that if I do decide to; then how do I job it in, as an approach which sits comfortably while using core conditions.
In one perception I think being aware of concept of ‘existential meaning’; it gives me understanding of the issues my clients might face. If perhaps this issue is definitely raised however could check out it in an exceedingly person centered way; always focussing upon what they get meaningful.
To offer an example; when a client was facing injury from hard relationship problems, I would work together with them; this may or may not feel on their ‘meaning for living’, unless this linked within their ‘conditions of worth’, that they only believed worthwhile by simply remaining in the relationship by whatever expense to themselves. This might touch on their own emotions of the actual saw their purpose in every area of your life was- so by keeping focussed upon what they had been bringing into the room; it may lead into them discovering their thoughts around the actual felt they desired because of their own your life, and what they felt was most important. I assume by understanding Victor Frankl and his complete theory, it is going to forever help me to see the require in my clientele to realise their particular meaning and sense of purpose. Like a Christian, My spouse and i very much join this, as the very character of being a kid of The almighty means that I actually am respected, not only mainly because I was unique, although because He has established me to fulfil simply those tasks and circumstances that I am best created to fulfil- it�s this that gives me meaning in my life.
Logotherapy- an added that means to psychoanalysis.
In his publication ‘The Will to Meaning'(18); Frankl details in detail the several ways of looking at theories and ideas of well-known psycho-analysists and psychologists. Throughout his work he is extremely respectful of the operate of Freud; of Adler and of various other well known theorists of his time. This individual uses quite easy images of a cylinder- (see figure 1) He talks about that the picture of the cylinder can be seen in one particular 2 dimensional way since either a rectangle or a group of friends. Neither of those images provides a complete photo of the canister. This Frankl likens to our own idea of human existence. We are consisting of body, mind and heart. In Freuds terms our company is seeking to locate pleasure in our existence. In ‘Adlers terms we are in search of power. Frankl uses the illustrations showing that, yes we have these kinds of points of presence, but unless we look in the whole picture, we do not see humans in the whole sense. The missing impression for Viktor Frankl is the fact as humans, we need to feel a sense of meaning or purpose for being; this really is different to additional theories, because by searching for meaning, it almost gives the various other purposes ‘life. ‘
This individual goes on to illustrate the importance penalized aware that gentleman has several dimensions- particularly when treating a person to get a neurosis. He explains 3 different types of neurosis (which happen to be likened to the three circles on the figure 2). The first becoming a neurosis caused by a clinical disorder (brain chemistry); the second getting caused by a physical disorder, including hyperthyroidism and lastly the third he calls ‘noogenic neurosis’ caused by spiritual/moral problems. Frankl likens these as the result of ‘existential vacuum’ or life feeling meaningless. The main symptoms of this sort of vacuum will be boredom and apathy.
Making use of the example of the three circles, Frankl explains that the reasons behind a neurosis, is not going to always be known- the important level is for the therapist/psychiatrist to be aware that there are additional dimensions into a human. (19)
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